Learn more

composite
21
21

Lebanon

In law
30
In practice
18

Lebanon's legal framework regarding political finance is sparse. Neither direct nor indirect public funding are available for parties or candidates. State resources are often abused during campaigns. Some restrictions on contributions to candidate exist, as do candidate expenditures, but parties are wholly unregulated in law. Elections are funded largely by foreign actors, or by candidates themselves. Only candidates are required to report on their finances during campaigns, and no reports are necessary outside the campaign season. In practice, the reports that are submitted tend to lack detailed information on contributors. No financial information is available to the public. Third party actors are not regulated by Lebanese law. The Supervisory Commission on the Electoral Campaign (SCEC) is charged with overseeing political finance, but its leaders are not appointed in merit-based, public competitions, and their independence, in practice, is not guaranteed. The SCEC does carry out some audits, but its sanctions are roundly ignored. The SCEC is too weak to meaningfully enforce political finance law.

  • expand button!

    Direct and Indirect Public Funding

    More about category
    composite
    25
    • expand button!
      Direct Public Funding
      More about category
      • expand button!
        1
        Score
        NO
        In law, there is direct public funding for electoral campaigns.More about indicator

        There is no direct public funding for the electoral campaigns of parties or candidates in Lebanon. Chapter 5 of the Parliamentary Election Law sets out parameters for the funding of campaigns, stating in Article 56 that "The candidate may use his own money to fund his electoral campaign," and that candidates can receive contributions, grants, and in-kind gifts from Lebanese natural and legal persons. No state funds are allocated to electoral campaigns.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where there is direct public funding for both political parties and individual candidates to campaign. A 100 also applies where only one of the two actors can be elected and, therefore, only one is entitled to direct public funding.

        A MODERATE score is earned where per law only one of the two actors (either political parties or individual candidates) is allocated direct public funding to campaign, even though both can be elected.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 54-62. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        2
        Score
        NO
        In law, there is a transparent and equitable mechanism to determine direct public funding for electoral campaigns.More about indicator

        No such law exists. There is no direct public funding for electoral campaigns of parties or candidates in Lebanon.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) direct public funding for political parties and individual candidates' electoral campaigns is allocated through a clearly defined calculation mechanism that is transparent and equitable, and 2) there are clearly defined eligibility criteria.

        A MODERATE score is earned where direct public funding for political party and individual candidates' electoral campaigns is allocated through a clearly defined calculation mechanism that is transparent and equitable, but eligibility criteria are not clearly defined.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 57-59. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        3
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent is the mechanism to determine direct public funding for electoral campaigns transparent, equitable and consistently applied?More about indicator

        Not applicable. There is no direct public funding for electoral campaings in Lebanon.

        "No direct funding is paid by the state in Lebanon," says Issa Nahhas, lawyer and expert on Lebanese elections.

        The study by LADE details and interprets the mechanisms for campaigns and elections. There is a reference to manipulating indirect state funds (p20), but there is no reference to funds from the state.

        No news articles refer to state funding.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) electoral campaigns allocations are always defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism, and 2) the defined eligibility criteria are applied consistently.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) electoral campaign allocations are usually defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism but exceptions exist, or 2) the eligibility criteria are usually applied but exceptions exist.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) political campaign allocations are rarely or never defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism, or 2) the defined eligibility criteria are rarely applied.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youth Party, September 7, 2014.

        Study: Financing Elections, published by LADE [no date], "http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/ffbcc23e-50e3-418e-ace2-0767bf2a148d/%D8%AA%D9%86%D8%B8%D9%8A%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%81%D8%A7%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A.aspx

      • expand button!
        4
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent does the entity in charge of public funding make disbursement information publicly available?More about indicator

        Not applicable.

        "Public funding doesn’t exist in Lebanon," says Issa Nahhas, lawyer and expert on Lebanese elections.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) complete information on the disbursements is published less than a month after disbursement, and 2) the information is available on the Internet for free or in hard copy at photocopying cost.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) the information published is incomplete or published more than two months after disbursement, or 2) obtaining the information costs more than photocopying.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) disbursement information is published more than four months after disbursement, or 2) no disbursement information is published or released upon request.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youth Party September 7, 2014.

    • expand button!
      Indirect Public Funding
      More about category
      • expand button!
        5
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, use of state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates is prohibited.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Chapter 5 of the Election Law, which is about financing the electoral campaign, does not mention anything in relation to allocations from the state. Indeed, the law does not ban the use of non-financial resources on the part of parties.

        Chapter 6, however, in article 71, stipulates:

        1- Public utilities, governmental institutions, public institutions, private or public universities, faculties, institutes and schools, and houses of worship may not be used for electoral events and rallies or for posting pictures or for electoral promotion purposes.
        2- Civil servants and employees of public institutions, municipalities, and municipal unions may not use their powers in favor of any candidate or list.

        The use of state resources on behalf of candidates, therfore, is prohibited. Parties are not regulated by law.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where there is an explicit ban on the use of state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates. A YES is also earned where there are clearly defined exceptions, which are accessible to all actors equally.

        A MODERATE score is earned where an explicit ban exists but it only applies to one of the two actors, even though both can be elected. A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        A NO score is also earned where the law exists, but allows discretionary exceptions.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 54-62; Chapter 6. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

        Chapter 6: (in Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-SIX--Electoral-Media-and-Advertising.aspx (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-SIX--Electoral-Media-and-Advertising.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        6
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent are no state resources used in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates' electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        "No financial state resources are allocated to political parties and individual candidates. However, candidates try to indirectly manipulate these state resources. The Minister of Energy and Water, which I don't wish to mention his name, is a clear example on the manipulation of the state during the parliamentary elections back in 2009. As we don't have regular access to power in Lebanon, he used and channelled electricity to serve his aims and the parties he supports giving longer hours of power to certain provinces to win voters' support," says Mario Abu Zaid, a Lebanese researcher on Lebanese elections.

        The study by Samir al Baghouri draws a comparison between several Arabic and international Electoral Laws. He refers to funding the electoral campaigns in Lebanon explaining how each candidates is in charge of opening a bank account and manage his own expenditures. He clearly states that the state may not contribute to funding campaigns.

        The news article which speaks about Jibran Bassil, the then Minister of Energy, and they way he financed his campaign during the 2009 elections. It clearly says that the state does not provide candidates with sources, but it shows how state resources are in fact manipulated by the candidates who are in power. As Bassil was the in charge of the Ministry of Energy, the article says that he used it to serve his campaign.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. The results of the monitoring reports issued by international and local observers of the 2009 parliamentary elections suggested that there were evidences of abuse of article 71 of the elections law in several occasions as follows:

        • Lebanese Association for Democratic Elections (LADE) LADE validated a persistent violation by most parties of Article 71: numerous candidates had used houses of worship and their annexes, universities, municipalities, schools, public institutions for electoral purposes. The validated examples gathered by LADE are as follows: visits to religious sites and delivering statements at the entrance of the said sites, organizing electoral activities at religious locations, religious figures’ support of a certain candidate or list during religious occasions or prayer, using the municipalities and their cadre for direct or indirect electoral activity, use of official and public institutions for election related activities and posting candidates’ pictures in public places. The following are just a few outstanding examples:
        • Prime Minister and candidate for the Sunni seat in Saida, Mr. Fouad Siniora received his guests at the government palace for electoral purposes; just to mention a few cases: on May 4, 2009 he received a member of the Jamaa Islamiya leadership and on April 29, 2009 he received the Union of Beirut Families.
        • On April 18, 2009, the candidate for the Sunni seat in Saida Mr. Fouad Siniora visited Al-Hariri mosque in Sidon, and went directly to the Jaafari Grand Mufti saying that, “he had never sought to become a Member of Parliament, however certain circumstances forced him to follow this course… “
        • On April 28, 2009, the Baalbeck Hermel candidates’ list was launched in front of the Bacchus temple at the Citadel of Baalbek; which is a public tourist landmark.
        • On May 3, 2009, under the patronage of the Speaker of the Parliament, Mr. Nabih Berri, a rally was organized in cooperation with the municipality of Hermel, at a private University – the American University for Education and Learning. Berri was represented by former Minister Ali Hussein Abdullah, who confirmed the success of the opposition list.

        • The National Democratic Institute: Although Article 71 of the 2008 Electoral Law prohibits using public utilities, governmental institutions, public institutions, private or public universities, faculties, institutes and schools, and houses of worship for electoral events and rallies or for posting pictures for electoral promotion purposes, these public spaces were frequently observed as sites for campaign posters and electoral events. The electoral law states that relevant local authorities are responsible for designating locations for electoral advertisements, but in many cases they failed to do so. The absence of legal parameters for where electoral advertisements could be posted in some parts of the country gave candidates the pretext to disregard the law. Campaign posters were commonly seen on public buildings throughout the country, such as in public and private universities. Domestic observers noted that candidates made electoral appearances at universities, hung posters on municipal buildings, and engaged in electoral activities in places of worship, such as churches, mosques, and Husseiniyas. SCEC published Decision No. 73 on 30/4/2009 that left determining the perimeter of a place of worship, and whether its annexes are also described as places of worship, up to the religious authorities in charge. Some religious figures issued decisions allowing annexes of places of worship to be used for electoral purposes, which paved the way for parties to use religion to influence voters. More generally, there was a common misuse of public funds by candidates who used state resources to campaign. Some candidates, especially incumbent MPs and ministers, used state resources and their political resources generated from their posts for electoral gains, which can be considered in violation of Chapter 6 Article 71 (paragraph 1) of the electoral law. The most overt case of this was when Minister of Telecommunications and opposition candidate in Batroun circulated a voice message notifying citizens that service rates were cut. Minister Bassil made no reference to the Ministry of Telecommunications or his position as Minster. Outgoing Prime Minister Fouad Siniora, who was running as a March 14 candidate in Saida (Sidon), received guests at the governmental palace for electoral purposes.

        Paragraph 2 of Article 6 stipulates that civil servants and employees of public institutions, municipalities, and municipal unions may not use their powers in favor of any candidate or list. Yet, several instances of municipalities acting in a politicized manner emerged in the press. Municipality workers claimed staff were promoted or penalized based on their political affiliations and that municipal budgets were used to provide in-kind contributions or provision of services to benefit an electoral campaign. Additionally, as noted below in the "Security Concerns" section, some candidates considered the security forces and public institutions to be politically biased in favor of their opponents, and unresponsive to their security concerns.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where there is no evidence of authorities using state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates. A 100 is also earned where there are clearly defined exceptions and are equally accessible to all actors.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) documented evidence indicates occasional use of state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates, or 2) clearly defined exceptions are not equally accessible to all actors.

        A 0 score is earned where documented evidence indicates regular use of state resources in favor of or against certain political parties and individual candidates.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Mario Abu Zaid, political analyst and researcher on Lebanese Elections at Carnegie Endowment Beirut, September 7, 2014.

        Study: A comparative analysis of political finance laws in Egypt, by Samir Al Bagouri, Qadaya. 2014. http://qadaya.net/?p=5803

        News article: Political and financial pressure to rescue Bassil from a third defeat in elections, Kataeb.org, December 4, 2012. http://www.kataeb.org/ar/news/details/396082/%D8%B6%D8%BA%D9%88%D8%B7+%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A9+%D9%88%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9+%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%B0+%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%84+%D9%85%D9%86+%D9%87%D8%B2%D9%8A%D9%85%D8%A9+%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9+%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D8%A9

        Reviewer's sources: Monitoring the Elections Process 09, Report N.2, Lebanese Association for Democratic Elections (LADE), May 8, 2009, P. 9, cited at: http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/9f7eef97-3896-4c20-b484-2235b5c5c9d9/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-2009-%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%86-%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9-(2).aspx

        Final Report on the Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, National Democratic Institute, June 7 2009, P. 32, cited at:https://www.ndi.org/files/LebaneseElectionsReport_2009.pdf

      • expand button!
        7
        Score
        NO
        In law, political parties and individual candidates have free or subsidized access to equitable air time for electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        According to the Lebanese Parliamentary Election Law No 25 free or subsidized access to air time is not granted to candidates. No eligibility criteria are defined either.

        Instead, clear guidelines are provided to regulate the involvement of the media and its work during campaigns (price, time, period/ space allocated for the broadcast). For example, the law requires media houses who wish to participate in electoral broadcasting to, ten days before the beginning of a campaign, submit a price list to the Electoral Commission, and to adhere to that price list when selling electoral advertising to parties and candidates throughout the campaign. “The media shall comply with their price list and “spaces” allocation info submitted,” article 66, Chapter 6. Air time is not restricted to radio and TV only but it also includes print and online (public and broadcast services).

        Objectivity is mentioned only in relation the coverage of state media, “The public media shall remain impartial in all phases of the electoral process. They (including body and staff) may not carry out any activity that might be considered in favor of any candidate or list at the expense of another candidate or list”.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) free or subsidized access to air time for electoral campaigns is granted in a transparent, equitable way, and 2) there are clearly defined eligibility criteria.

        A MODERATE score is earned where free or subsidized access to air time for electoral campaigns is granted in a transparent, equitable way, but eligibility criteria are not clearly defined.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 6, Art. 63-69. 2008. (In Arabic )http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-SIX--Electoral-Media-and-Advertising.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        8
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent is free or subsidized access to air time provided in a transparent, equitable way to political parties and individual candidates for electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        Not applicable. There is no free/subsidized access to electoral advertising in Lebanon.

        "Independent candidates have no free or subsidized access to air time, but major political leaders (Berri, Jounblat, Hariri, Aoun, Geagea, etc..) pay to have the biggest shares of air time (especially in the media stations they own or have big influence in). In general, Media is not objective in Lebanon. Political parties get more coverage in the news and their prominent figures are interviewed (most times solely for 2-3 hours) in major political debate shows. Independent nominees get nothing of that sort," Assaad Thebian.

        The study by AL Izzi backs up the argument, explaining that there is no free or subsidized access to airtime. Candidates pay for these things, and are often financed by foreign actors. Under the section 'airtime incitement', the writer says that external powers dedicated a huge amount of money for media coverage of candidates and electoral campaigns. According to the writer this money should be spent according to their agendas , which does not care about Lebanese citizens or the welfare of their country.

        No news articles were found to speak about free access to air time, but a book chapter (see sources) says that Lebanese Electoral Law allows candidates to fund their own media campaigns.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) free or subsidized access to media advertising is always provided in a transparent and equitable way, and 2) the defined eligibility criteria are applied consistently.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) free or subsidized access to media advertising is usually provided in a transparent and equitable way, but exceptions exist, or 2) the eligibility criteria are not always applied.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) there's rarely free or subsidized access to air time for political campaign, and 2) access exists but is not provided in a transparent, equitable way.

        Sources

        Email interview with Journalist Asaad Thebian, August 30, 2014. Mr. Thebian covers elections and promotes certain candidates on Social Media and worked on the Civil Campaign for Electoral Reform.

        Study: "Lebanese media between propaganda and incitement," Khaled al Izzi, 2011. http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=%20275670

        Introduction from "Métamorphose des figures du leadership au Liban. Champs et contrechamps des élections législatives de 2009" a book by Myriam Catusse, Karam Karam et Olfa Lamloum http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/2572

  • expand button!

    Contribution and Expenditure Restrictions

    More about category
    composite
    42
    • expand button!
      General Rules on Electoral Campaign Contributions
      More about category
      • expand button!
        9
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, cash contributions are banned.More about indicator

        According to the Lebanese Electoral Law, cash contributions are allowed up to 1 million Lebanese pounds (about $650 US). Article 55(5) states, “No amount exceeding 1million LBP shall be received or paid unless by check."

        Further, financial contributions should be made through a bank account operating in Lebanon. Article 55 in Chapter five of the Election law requires every candidate to establish a “Electoral Campaign Account” which will be the only legitimate source for candidates to process their spending during the electoral period. All electoral contributions and expenses shall be exclusively made through this account during the period of the electoral campaign.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where cash contributions are banned and all financial contributions must be made via the banking system.

        A MODERATE score is earned where cash contributions are allowed up to a maximum limit, regardless of the limit.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 55, 56. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        10
        Score
        NO
        In law, there is a ban on anonymous contributions.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where the law stipulates that anonymous contributions are banned.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the ban exists, but it applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates). A MODERATE score is also earned where small anonymous donations are allowed up to a maximum threshold equal to or less than the equivalent to US$300.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        No such law exists.

      • expand button!
        11
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, in-kind donations to political parties and individual candidates must be reported.More about indicator

        There are two articles in the Lebanese Electoral Law that speak about in-kind donations. They apply only to candidates. Political parties are not mentioned.

        Article 58 specified the types of in-kind donations which are: renting of offices, organization of rallies, printing, design, transportation of fees, and promotional material.

        Article 61 speaks about the reporting scheme, where candidates are expected to submit to the Commission (which is the monitoring institution) on expenses and in-kind donations including receipts and disbursement notes through an exhaustive bank statement, "candidate must draw up an exhaustive statement of account following the principles of accounting and including, in details, the total received contributions with their sources and dates, and the total of expenses paid or to be paid with their nature and dates, during the electoral period".

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where all in-kind donations must be reported to the oversight authority.

        A MODERATE score is also earned if the requirement to report such information exists, but applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 58 and 61. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        12
        Score
        NO
        In law, loans to political parties and individual candidates must be reported.More about indicator

        No such law exists. All details speak about contributions and expenses from individuals or institutions, but no regulations in relation to loans are made.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where all loans must be reported to the oversight authority.

        A MODERATE score is earned where loans must be reported, but the requirement applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        No such law exists.

    • expand button!
      Limits on Contributions and Expenditures during Electoral Campaign Periods
      More about category
      • expand button!
        13
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, contributions from individuals are limited to a maximum amount.More about indicator

        Although there is no explicit limit on individual contributions to candidates, contributions from individuals are allowed only as long as they do not exceed 150 million LBP (equivalent to $99,000 US).

        Contributions from individuals to candidates are mentioned in article 56 of the Parliamentary Elections Law as follows, "The total amount of all contributions received by a candidate for his electoral campaign shall not exceed the electoral expenditure ceiling". Article 57 sets the expenditure limit at 150 million LBP, which effectively sets a cap on donations: they may not exceed 150 million LBP.

        No mention is made of limits on contributions to parties.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) individuals may not contribute more than a maximum amount established by the law.

        A MODERATE score is earned where a maximum amount exists, but it applies only to contributions for one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates). A MODERATE score is also earned where individuals are forbidden from making any contribution.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 56, 57. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        14
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, contributions from corporations are limited to a maximum amount.More about indicator

        Contributions from corporations are allowed only as long as they do not exceed expenditure ceiling of 150 million LBP (equivalent to $99,000 US).

        Contributions from corporations are mentioned in article 56 of the Parliamentary Elections Law as follows, "The total amount of all contributions received by a candidate for his electoral campaign shall not exceed the electoral expenditure ceiling". Article 57 sets the expenditure limit at 150 million LBP, which effectively sets a cap on donations: they may not exceed 150 million LBP.

        There is no limit on contributions to parties.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) corporations may not contribute more than a maximum amount established by the law.

        A MODERATE score is earned where a maximum amount or ban exists, but it applies only to contributions for one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates). A MODERATE score is also earned where corporations are forbidden from making any contribution.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 56, 57. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us.

      • expand button!
        15
        Score
        YES
        In law, contributions from foreign sources are banned.More about indicator

        The Lebanese Parliamentary Law bans all contributions from foreign sources.

        Article 56 in Chapter five mentions that all contributors should be nationals of Lebanon, "Only Lebanese natural or legal persons may offer contributions for a candidate’s electoral campaign." That same article points out that "a candidate or list shall be strictly prohibited from accepting or receiving, whether directly or indirectly, contributions or aids from foreign states or from a non-Lebanese natural or legal person," which effectively bans foreign contributions to parties in addition to candidates.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where it is forbidden for political parties and individual candidates to receive contributions (financial or in-kind) from foreign sources.

        A MODERATE score is earned where: 1) the ban exists but it applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates), or 2) contributions from foreign sources are allowed to a maximum amount.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 56. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        16
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, contributions from third-party actors (unions, foundations, think tanks, political action committees, etc.) are limited to a maximum amount or banned.More about indicator

        No specific regulations of third party actors exist. However, contributions from third party actors are allowed only as long as they do not exceed expenditure ceiling of 150 million LBP (equivalent to $99,000 US).

        Contributions from third party actors are obliquely mentioned in article 56 of the Parliamentary Elections Law as follows, "The total amount of all contributions received by a candidate for his electoral campaign shall not exceed the electoral expenditure ceiling". Article 57 sets the expenditure limit at 150 million LBP, which effectively sets a cap on donations: they may not exceed 150 million LBP.

        There is no limit on contributions to parties.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) third-party actors may not contribute more than a maximum amount established by the law, or 2) are forbidden from making any contribution.

        A MODERATE score is earned where: 1) the maximum amount or ban exists only for the majority of third-party actors, but not all, or 2) the maximum amount or ban exists, but applies only to contributions for either political parties or individual candidates.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        17
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, election campaign spending by political parties and individual candidates is limited to a maximum amount.More about indicator

        According to the Lebanese Electoral Law, candidates are entitled to spend during the electoral period not more than a flat amount of 150 million LBP (equivalent to $ 99,000 US), plus a variable part dependent on the number of voters in the candidates' district. No mention is made of political party spending. Article 57 details that as follows:

        "The maximum limit of funds that each candidate may spend on his electoral campaign shall be determined as follows: - A fixed flat amount equivalent to one hundred and fifty million Lebanese pounds - A variable part depending on the number of voters within his electoral district and determined by virtue of a decree issued by the Council of Ministers upon the suggestion of the Minister of Interior and Municipalities.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where it is forbidden for political parties and individual candidates to spend more than a certain amount in a political campaign.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the maximum amount exists, but it applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 57. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        18
        Score
        --
        Open Question: Do the national laws regulating political finance also apply to sub-national units? If not, to what extent do sub-national units have laws regulating political finance?More about indicator

        "There is no direct correspondence between national and sub-national regulations. The law for municipal elections for example is still new and it needs to be reformed or amended," says Mario Abu Zaid, a researcher on Lebanese elections.

        The Arab Institute report explains that the current Lebanese Muncipal Law governing municipal elections does not include laws to regulate electoral campaign funding, and that, as a result, there's a strong lack of transparency in regards to campaign financing at the municipal level.

        The post by Minister Baroud argues that reform is urgently needed, and explains that the Ministry of the Interior, in 2010, formulated a proposal to reform the existing Municipal Law, in addition the other sub-national regulations on campaign finance. The proposal includes needed provisions that will "ensure the unity of legislation" between the national and subnational levels, including the adoption of a proportional representation system at the local level, and mandating reports on expenditure and contribution at the muncipal level.


        Peer reviewer comment: According to article 16 of the Municipal act issued by decree-law no. 118, of 1977, “The provisions of the Parliamentary elections law shall apply to the municipal elections in conformity with all the provisions of the municipal law.” In other words, the municipal law was supposed to be amended to include articles regulating the Electoral funding and spending in conformity with the Parliamentary Election Law - No. 25 of 2008 which never happened. As a result, there are no spending limits imposed on candidates and political parties and on the contributions from individuals during the municipal elections.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please describe the applicability of national political finance regulations at the sub-national level, being sure to answer: 1) whether national laws are applicable to sub-national campaigns; 2) if not, to what extent do sub-national units have similar laws regulating political finance; and 3) whether there are any reports of problems arising from gaps in this framework.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Mario Abu Zaid, political analyst and researcher on Lebanese Elections at Carnegie Endowment Beirut, September 7, 2014.

        News article, the overall report about the Municipal Elections in Lebanon, published on the website of Arab Institute of Women, June 2010, http://www.mowatinat.org/articles/index.php?news=1973

        Proposal by Ziad Baroud, The Minister of Interior on his personal facebook, March 24, 2010 https://www.facebook.com/notes/ziad-baroud/%D9%85%D8%B0%D9%83%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%B6%D9%8A%D8%AD%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AD%D9%88%D9%84-%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B9-%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AE%D8%AA%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A3%D8%B3%D8%A6%D9%84%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A3%D8%AC%D9%88%D8%A8%D8%A9/420787149815?commentid=13182227&offset=0&totalcomments=3

        Reviewer's sources: Municipal act issued by decree-law no. 118, of 1977, cited at: https://www.google.com.lb/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CB0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.interior.gov.lb%2Foldmoim%2Fmoim%2FDOC%2FMunicipalActEng.doc&ei=HC1FVJzWL8ivaZX4gIgF&usg=AFQjCNHUBxvCH_ridvtJxdND6RLNdHQjMA&sig2=qojuZovl0ra9si3LlDE9uA

        LADE report on Municipal Elections-2010, cited at: http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/c2f2447b-a847-4e21-88cd-c2faab050df2/%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%A9-2010.aspx

      • expand button!
        19
        Score
        --
        Open Question: What are the predominant sources of funding for electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        According to Issa Nahhas, most electoral funding in Lebanese campaigns "comes from other countries such as KSA and Iran. Money is indirectly paid to bring voters who are Lebanese nationals residing in these countries to come to Lebanon and vote."

        Nahhas further explains that candidates self-finance only when they come from wealthy and rich families, and that parties do not own businesses or trusts with which they generate campaign funds. He also states, "usually, the influence of the 14th of March and 8th of March parties is prominent, and they play a key role in determining which candidate wins elections."

        The cited book chapter also confirms this idea. According to the writers, external powers intervene directly in Lebanese elections. The US Ambassador to Lebanon has attended campaign events and sat in the front seat. Interventions occur via financing certain candidates such as Iran and KSA, although providing a proof for the amount of the money paid by both countries cannot be determined.

        Only wealthy candidates are able to self-finance. The news article from Sawalief says that campaigns and candidate access to airtime and media publicity of certain candidates is determined by the amount of money they own. The same article says that some candidates lean on their own business such as satellite channels and other media outlets, which was fiercely used to serve their goals.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - The researcher’s answer was clear in identifying the source of funding of candidates’ electoral campaigns. Candidates can be divided into two groups; the wealthy self-financed ones and members of political parties who remain dependent on their parties financing. While candidates submit their financial report to the SCEC, political parties are not required to submit any reports on their income and expenditure in relation to election campaigns, and since the reports are not published, it’s impossible to identify the main source of funding. A report published by the National Democratic Institute following the 2009 parliamentary elections, cited the following: “With Lebanon's stringent banking secrecy laws, it is very difficult to regulate the money flowing into the country, but reports in local and international media estimate that the money arriving from Saudi Arabia alone, a backer of the March 14 alliance, topped $715 million. Likewise, sources indicate that Iran has sent Hezbollah hundreds of millions of dollars over the years. Generally, candidates obscured any foreign support that they received, however a Shi'a candidate aligned with March 14 in Marjayoun-Hasbayah, said he welcomed support from Saudi Arabia for his campaign as a non-Hezbollah alternative in South Lebanon."

        Scoring Criteria

        Please describe the important sources of funding for electoral campaigns, being sure to answer: 1) where does the preponderance of funding come from - public, individual, corporate, or other; 2) to what extent do individual candidates self-finance; and 3) do political parties have other methods of generating campaign funds, such as owning their own businesses or trusts.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youths Party September 7, 2014.

        "Métamorphose des figures du leadership au Liban. Champs et contrechamps des élections législatives de 2009" a book by Myriam Catusse, Karam Karam et Olfa Lamloum http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/2572

        News article, "the 17th parliament members before elections," by Yaseen al Bttosh, published at Sawalief, September 1, 2013 http://www.sawaleif.com/details.aspx?detailsid=52825

        Reviewer's sources: Final Report on the Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, National Democratic Institute, June 7 2009, P. 30, cited at:https://www.ndi.org/files/LebaneseElectionsReport_2009.pdf

      • expand button!
        20
        Score
        --
        Open Question: Have there been documented instances of violations of contribution or expenditure limits or any of the laws mentioned above (Section 2)?More about indicator

        Experts do not report any documented instances of violations, though by word of mouth, foreign contributions are particularly prevalent in Lebanese campaigns. According to the NY Times article on the 2009 elections, voters regularly sell their votes to the highest bidder, and candidates pay their opponents to withdraw from campaigns. The LADE report, however, mentions no concrete violations of expenditure or contribution limits.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - The researcher clarified that there is no documented instances of violations, which was the motive behind the constitutional council decision to turn down all nineteen complaints filed against election results from several parliamentary constituencies. The Council did not find conclusive evidence of election fraud, thus decided not to annul the votes.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please list and describe all documented instances of: 1) violation of contribution limits, 2) violation of expenditure limits, and 3) financial contributions that circumvent the regulatory framework. The objective of this question is to learn more about the local context, so please explain the cases in as much detail as relevant.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youths Party September 7, 2014.

        Report by LADE on Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, April 24, 2009 http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/bb6dba99-2026-4e36-a5f4-f328842f2823/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-2009-%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%86-%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86.aspx

        News Article: Foreign Money Seeks to Buy Lebanese Votes, by Robert Worth, New York Times. April 22, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/23/world/middleeast/23lebanon.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

        News Article: Ahmad Alassaad: This is how he destroyed hundereds of Shiite houses, Al Ankaboot.com, 17, May, 2014 http://www.alankabout.com/lebanon_news/56762.html

        Reviewer's sources: News article: Election Challenges Likely to be Rejected, Daily Star, November 25, 2009. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2009/Nov-25/60278-june-election-challenges-likely-to-be-rejected.ashx#ixzz3GoNDEZPz

  • expand button!

    Reporting and Public Disclosure

    More about category
    composite
    10
    • expand button!
      Reporting Requirements to the Oversight Entity
      More about category
      • expand button!
        21
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, political parties and individual candidates report itemized contributions and expenditures both during and outside electoral campaign periods.More about indicator

        According to the Lebanese Electoral Law, candidates should report their itemized contributions and expenditures made during the electoral campaign period to the Commission, an independent monitoring body. There is no requirement that they report outside of the campaign season.

        Article 61 in the Lebanese Law mentions that an "exhaustive statement including, in details, the total received contributions with their sources and dates, and the total of expenses paid or to be paid with their nature and dates, during the electoral period." These statements must be submitted within "one month after the polling day" together with supporting documents (receipts and disbursement notes) and "an exhaustive bank statement about all operations" from the electoral bank account signed by the candidate if he is independent or a group of candidates.

        Parties are not required to report on their expenditure and income at any time; however, their expenditures on behalf of candidates should, ostensibly, be covered in the reports submitted by candidates.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where political parties and individual candidates are required to report itemized contributions and expenditures to the oversight authority, both during and outside electoral campaign periods.

        A MODERATE score is earned where: 1) the requirement applies for itemized contributions, but not for itemized expenditures, or 2) it applies only during the electoral campaign but not outside it. A MODERATE score is also earned where the requirement exists, but it only applies to one actor (whether political parties and individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 61. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        22
        Score
        NO
        In law, political parties and individual candidates are required to report their financial information on a monthly basis during the electoral campaign.More about indicator

        No such law exists. According to article 54 of the Electoral Law, official electoral campaign period "starts on the date of application for candidacy and ends upon closing the ballot boxes." No defined length is legally stipulated, so it's impossible to say how frequently candidate reports are required during the campaign season. However, according to Article 61 of the Elections, they are required to submit post election reports.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where political parties and individual candidates must report monthly their financial information to the oversight authority during the electoral campaign.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the requirement exists on a quarterly basis. A MODERATE score is also earned where the requirement only applies to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Articles 54, 61. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        23
        Score
        NO
        In law, political parties and individual candidates are required to report their financial information on a quarterly basis outside of electoral campaign periods.More about indicator

        No such law exists. The only reports required, in law, are those made by candidates after the conclusion of election campaigns.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where political parties and individual candidates must report quarterly their financial information to the oversight authority outside of electoral campaign periods.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the requirement exists on a yearly basis. A MODERATE score is also earned where the requirement only applies to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        No such law exists

      • expand button!
        24
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do political parties and individual candidates report itemized financial information monthly?More about indicator

        "Reports are submitted only after the electoral period. None of these reports is accurate anyway," says Issa Nahhas, lawyer and expert on political finance.

        The report by IFES mentions that candidates do not need to send any report before the elections, though the commission might request some information. Candidates submit a final report which is after the electoral period that includes all financial information. In practice, only some candidates submit financial reports, and the details contained therein are scant.

        The news article by Al Jazeera mentions in the last paragraph that reporting to the oversight authority is not frequent. No clear number is specified, but it is written in singular, which means that reporting is done only once.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. As described by the researcher, candidates are not required to report any financial information outside the electoral campaign periods. According to article 61 of the Lebanese Parliamentary Election Law No 25, candidates should submit a statement of account including, in details, the total received contributions with their sources and dates, and the total of expenses paid or to be paid with their nature and dates, during the electoral period. This statement should be submitted to the Commission within one month after the polling day. In its final report the SCEC provided information on the candidates’ statement of account as follows: The total number of candidates is 702 (there is confusion between 701 and 702, due to a candidate who moved his candidacy from one district to another) - After expiry of the withdrawal deadline, the number dropped to 587. - 313 candidates did not submit a final balance sheet. - 389 candidates submitted a balance sheet. - 66.2% of applicants submitted a balance sheet. - 89.8% of candidates submitted a balance sheet within the deadline (i.e. 347 candidates out of 389). - 11% of candidates submitted a balance sheet after the deadline (i.e. 42 candidates out of 389) - 67 candidates submitted a flawed balance sheet. - 17.20% of candidates submitted a flawed report.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) political parties and individual candidates report on their financial information monthly, and 2) the reports include both itemized contributions and itemized expenditures.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) the reports are occasionally general rather than itemized or don't contain all accounts, or 2) the reporting frequency is quarterly.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) political parties and individual candidates rarely or never file reports, 2) the reports are filed but are rarely or never itemized or refer only to either contributions or expenditures, or 3) the reporting frequency is less than quarterly.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youths Party September 7, 2014.

        A study on the Political Finance Framework in Lebanon, Dr. Magnus Ohman, IFES, p.5 and 6, 2009, http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

        News article:The controversy of financing candidates, by Nicola Tehme, Aljazeera.ne, 2009, http://aljazeera.net/news/reportsandinterviews/2009/6/3/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%84-%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%B4%D8%A3%D9%86-%D8%AA%D9%85%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%B4%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%86

        Reviewer's sources:

        Final Report of the SCEC, 2009 Parliamentary Elections, P. 46, cited at: http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-EN.aspx

        Article 61 of the Lebanese Parliamentary Election Law No 25, 2009, cited at: http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx

      • expand button!
        25
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent do financial reports by political parties and individual candidates include all types of contributions?More about indicator

        "Reports include all contributions: in-kind and cash. They clearly explain the all transactions made from different resources, i.e. other than the candidate's own account. These could be money used from the account of his spouse, relative, etc," says an anonymous civil society expert on democracy issues in Lebanon.

        The LADE report includes the financial statement form that candidates ought to fill with needed information and submit by the end of the electoral period and it includes questions on the following: sources of financing the campaign, expenses, in-kind contributions (names of donors and types of donations).

        The SCEC report specifies all types of itemized contributions that should be included in the report. These are: offering food and beverages, renting electoral offices, dinner or lunch parties for electoral purposes, donations or payments made for organizations and charities. The report further indicates that there are a number of candidates who submitted a complete balance sheet. "389 submitted a balance sheet" and "67 candidates submitted a flawed balance sheet."

        The news article shows that the current law is not specific enough on how to include all types of contributions and the criteria to evaluate what had been included, especially with those granted by political parties/ unions.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. Page 46 of the SCEC's final report on the 2009 elections makes clear that some candidates failed to report all contributions and donors during the campaign.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) reports include an itemized list of all contributions indicating their type (in-kind, cash where allowed, etc.) and amount (estimated value for in-kind contributions), and 2) contain donors' names and addresses (or other personal identifier).

        A 50 score is earned where only one of the two conditions listed in the 100 criteria is met.

        A 0 score is earned where neither condition is met.

        Sources

        Phone interview with anonymous civil society expert, trainer and expert on democratic issues and one of the founders of LADE, September 14, 2014.

        Final Report of the SCEC, 2009 Parliamentary Elections. P. 44. http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-AR_.aspx

        News article: 160 Complaint, 2626 violations and public owned media breaks silence, by Clair Shukr, 01, 02, 2010, Beirut Letter http://www.beirutletter.org/index.php?page=press&id=10088&action=Detail

        Study: Financing Elections, published by LADE, (publication date is unclear) p.35, 36, and 37 "http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/ffbcc23e-50e3-418e-ace2-0767bf2a148d/%D8%AA%D9%86%D8%B8%D9%8A%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%81%D8%A7%D9%82-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A.aspx

        The names of anonymous sources are known to Global Integrity and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose them.

        Reviewer's sources: Final Report of the SCEC, 2009 Parliamentary Elections, P. 46, cited at: http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-EN.aspx

    • expand button!
      Availability of Electoral Campaigns' Financial Information to the Public
      More about category
      • expand button!
        26
        Score
        NO
        In law, financial information from political parties and individual candidates must be available to the public.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Lebanese Electoral Law states only that candidates should submit their report to the Commission. In law, nothing must be available to the public.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where in law financial information of political parties and individual candidates must be made available to the public, whether online or digitally within two days of request.

        A MODERATE score is earned where financial information must be made available to the public, but no requirement exists regarding cost, format or number of days within which it must be made available.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        No such law exists

      • expand button!
        27
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent can citizens easily access the financial information of all political parties and individual candidates?More about indicator

        Citizens cannot access the financial reports submitted by the candidates and the information is not publicly available.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) all relevant financial information is freely available online, 2) it can be obtained digitally within two days of requesting it, and 3) it is in a machine readable format (for example in csv or xml format).

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) information is available but in some cases is incomplete or lacking detail, 2) obtaining complete information takes up to a month, or 3) it's not necessarily digital or in machine readable format.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) the information is not publicly available, or 2) obtaining it takes more than three months, or 3) the cost of obtaining it is prohibitive for the regular citizen.

        Sources

        Phone interview with anonymous civil society expert, trainer and expert on democratic issues and one of the founders of LADE, September 14, 2014.

        Final Report of the SCEC, 2009 Parliamentary Elections. Content page. http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-AR_.aspx

        The names of anonymous sources are known to Global Integrity and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose them.

      • expand button!
        28
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent is financial information published in a standardized format?More about indicator

        Citizens cannot access the financial reports submitted by the candidates and the information is not publicly available or in a standardized format of any kind.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where financial information for all political parties and individual candidates is available to the public in a standardized format.

        A 50 score is earned where only part of the information is published in a standardized format. A 50 score is also earned where the information is standardized, but it doesn't cover all political parties and individual candidates.

        A 0 score is earned where financial information is not available in a standardized format.

        Sources

        Phone interview with anonymous civil society expert, trainer and expert on democratic issues and one of the founders of LADE, September 14, 2014.

        Phone interview with Khalil Jbara, member of the SCEC, October 7, 2014.

        No news articles refer to this matter

        The names of anonymous sources are known to Global Integrity and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose them.

      • expand button!
        29
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do mainstream journalism media outlets use political finance data in their reporting?More about indicator

        "Journalists don't use official financial information in their work. I don't remember any media exposing any scandal regarding the financial aspect of an electoral campaign. In best cases, they find some cases of bribery and it is always that the people in question are from the political opponent side," says Assaad Thebian, a Lebanese journalist.

        In the analysis provided by the European Union Report on media during elections there is no mentioning of official financial information reported by journalists.

        According to Ohman's study, financial information are not available for journalists. The law says that SCEC are the only ones who have access to these accounts.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where at least three independent mainstream journalism media outlets have used officially published political party or individual candidate financial information as part of their reporting.

        A 50 score is earned where one independent mainstream journalism media outlet has used officially published financial information as part of its reporting.

        A 0 score is earned where no mainstream journalism media outlet has used officially published financial information as part of its reporting.

        Sources

        Interview with Journalist Asaad Thebian, by email, August 30, 2014. Mr. Thebian covers elections and promotes certain candidates on Social Media, and has worked for the Civil Campaign for Electoral Reform.

        Lebanon's Final Report, by the European Union June 7, 2009, p. 19, 20, and 21 http://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/mideast/LB/lebanon-final-report-parliamentary-elections

        Study: The Political Finance Framework in Lebanon, by Magnus Ohman, IFES, 2009 p. 8 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

      • expand button!
        30
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent were there no news reports or other documented incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws?More about indicator

        "There is minimal coverage of elections' violations. In case of violence, different media outlets have different stories based on their political affiliations rather than checked facts," says Assaad Thebian.

        The news piece quotes Ziad Baroud, Minister of Interior explaining how organizations and third party actors finance campaigns. No accurate incidents or numbers are documented.

        The news article by Al Jazeera refers to a report by Al Manar TV about cheques worth $2,000,000 US signed by senior officials from the Future Movement to support certain candidates. The managemet of al Manar TV presented documents and bank statements as an evidence for violations of the law and the clearly definied criteria for expenditure ceiling.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. The political finance law refers to campaign finance regulations of parliamentary elections. International and local observers reported several breaches of those regulations. According to the Lebanese Association for Democratic Elections (LADE), “one candidate paid in full the tuition fees of students residing within his electoral district; political party offices distributed medicine and provided health care free of charge; one candidate offered monetary donations to schools within his electoral district; this in addition to cash payments to citizens or a promise of such payments in return for their votes”.

        The National Democratic Institute (NDI) in its final report of the 2009 parliamentary elections reported that its domestic observation mission reported 49 incidents of bribes on Election Day in a number of districts, particularly in Chouf, Kesrwan, Saida (Sidon), Tripoli, and Zahlé. Domestic observers witnessed mukhtars and party agents distributing money and candidate lists to use as ballots to voters in rooms in and around polling centers. According to the same report, vote buying is very difficult to investigate or confirm and neither domestic nor international observers were able to take systematic testimony from voters who were bribed on Election Day or collect material evidence.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where there were no news reports or other documented incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the most recent national election.

        A 50 score is earned where there were news reports or other documented incidents of no more than two cases of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the most recent national election.

        A 0 score is earned where there were frequent news reports or other documented incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the most recent national election.

        Sources

        Email interview with Journalist Asaad Thebian, August 30, 2014. Mr. Thebian covers elections and promotes certain candidates on Social Media worked for Civil Campaign for Electoral Reform.

        News article: Political finance and bribary escort elections, by Pascal Abou Nader, Elnashra, 16 May, 2013. news http://www.elnashra.com/news/show/617902/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D8%B4%D9%88%D8%A9-%D9%85%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%83%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%84%D9%83%D9%84-%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A7-%D9%82%D8%A7

        News Article: Lebanese Controversy regarding financing candidates by Nicola Tehme, Al Jazeera.net 2009 http://aljazeera.net/news/reportsandinterviews/2009/6/3/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%84-%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%B4%D8%A3%D9%86-%D8%AA%D9%85%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%B4%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%86

        Reviewer's sources: Monitoring the Elections Process 09, Report N.2, Lebanese Association for Democratic Elections (LADE), May 8, 2009, P. 7, cited at: http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/9f7eef97-3896-4c20-b484-2235b5c5c9d9/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-2009-%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%86-%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9-(2).aspx

        Final Report on the Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, National Democratic Institute, June 7 2009, P. 43, cited at: https://www.ndi.org/files/LebaneseElectionsReport_2009.pdf

      • expand button!
        31
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent were there no news reports or other documented incidents of vote-buying?More about indicator

        "There are several cases but they never changed the actual results. The only one incident that ever happened when an MP seat was given to a nominee who didn't win is when Michel Murr's daughter and brother (Gabriel; owner of MTV channel) ran against each other. The results where close and both nominees accused each other of bribery and vote buying. No one faced any legal issues though," says Assaad Thebian, a Lebanese journalist.

        The Study by LADE documents multiple violations of vote-buying. Some examples are: the machine of the Shiite candidate in Marjayoun-Hasbya district, Ahmad alAssaad, who distributed health cards that were conditional upon voter choices and The election machine of the Maronite candidate in Kesrwan district, Mansour El-Bone, provided voters with vouchers of medical services during his campaign.

        News articles provide further details on violations made by Ahmad Al Assad. He offered financial assistance and health cards to some citizens and after he lost the elections he withdrew back everything. The article also mentions that he received funds for his campaign from Saudi Arabia.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where there were no news reports or other documented incidents of vote-buying during the most recent national election.

        A 50 score is earned where there were news reports or other documented incidents of no more than two cases of vote-buying during the most recent national election.

        A 0 score is earned where there were frequent news reports or other documented incidents of vote-buying during the most recent national election.

        Sources

        Interview with Journalist Asaad Thebian, by email, August 30, 2014. Mr. Thebian covers elections and promotes certain candidates on Social Media worked for Civil Campaign for Electoral Reform.

        Documented incidents of vote buying-report by LADE, April 24, 2009 http://www.lade.org.lb/getattachment/bb6dba99-2026-4e36-a5f4-f328842f2823/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-2009-%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%B9%D9%86-%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86.aspx

        News Article: Foreign Money Seeks to Buy Lebanese Votes, by Robert Worth, New York Times. April 22, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/23/world/middleeast/23lebanon.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

        News Article: Ahmad Alassaad: This is how he destroyed hundreds of Shiite houses, Al Ankaboot.com, 17, May, 2014 http://www.alankabout.com/lebanon_news/56762.html

      • expand button!
        32
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do civil society organizations use political finance data?More about indicator

        "Civil society organizations do not and actually cannot access the financial information of the candidates. This does not happen in Lebanon, "says Issa Nahhas, lawyer and expert and Lebanese elections.

        According to Ohman's study, financial information are not available to civil society organizations. The law says that SCEC are the only ones who have access to these accounts.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where at least three civil society organizations have used officially published political party or individual candidate financial information as part of their advocacy or awareness work.

        A 50 score is earned where one civil society organization has used officially published financial information as part of its advocacy or awareness work.

        A 0 score is earned where no civil society organization has used officially published financial information as part of its work.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youths Party, September 7, 2014..

        Study: The Political Finance Framework in Lebanon, by Magnus Ohman, IFES, 2009 p. 8 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

      • expand button!
        33
        Score
        --
        Open Question: Have there been political finance legal reforms or reform bills presented to the legislature in the last 10 years?More about indicator

        "Changes in the recent electoral law are related to: 1- The timing of the elections. Before 2008, elections happened over a course of a month (four Sundays), but the 2008 law elections happen in one day (one Sunday) 2-The new law also included a chapter to regulate political finance and the contributions and disbursements of candidates or political parties 3- A supervisory commission was established to monitor elections and its tasks are defined and detailed in the 2008 law.

        Suggestions to the changes/ reforms happened through a public survey which was then raised to a consultative committee assigned by the government who was in charge of amending the previous law. Only parts of the suggestions made by the public were considered," says Yara Nassar, LADE's Executive Director.

        "Reforming the electoral law was a reaction or rather an answer to the 2008 crisis when the government tried to shut down Hizbullah's telecommunication network. In turn Hizbollah's fighters attacked several places in western Beirut. Dispute was resolved in Doha which has put an end to the parliamentary disagreement and proposed reforms led by Ziad Baroud, the then Prime Minister. What has not been approved yet are regulations related to ballot districts. The suggestion was to replace the majoritarian system by a mixed system to reduce sectarianism. This suggestion was not included in the reformed law," says Issa Nahas, lawyer and expert on Lebanese elections.

        The article by Sara Serimann details the political context that led to reforming the electoral law. Reform was based on a draft proposed by the National Commission on the Parliamentary Electoral Law. The reformed law has included ceiling on campaign spending , specific campaign account for all candidacy contributions and expenses by each candidate and list, and provisions on the audio-visual media designed to ensure equal access to these for all lists and candidates.

        The article by New Media says that most important reforms were related to political finance and regulations of the media.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please list and describe all documented instances of: 1) political finance reforms, including bills passed, executive orders signed, court rulings and any other legal act that had a direct effect on existent political finance regulation, and 2) all legal reform attempts presented to the legislature even if they were not approved. Please describe the political context that produced the reforms or reform attempts.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Ms. Yara Nassar, LADE, Executive Director, September 5, 2014.

        Phone interview with Issa Nahhas, president and founder of Phalangist Opposition Youths Party, September 7, 2014.

        Journal article: Lebanon’s Reformed Electoral Law – Is the Cup Really “half full”? by Julia Seiermann, Jun 2 2009, E-International Relations Students http://www.e-ir.info/2009/06/02/lebanon%E2%80%99s-reformed-electoral-law-is-the-cup-really-%E2%80%9Chalf-full%E2%80%9D/

        Online portal: The fear of overthrowing reforms by traditional politics, 30/05/2008 https://now.mmedia.me/lb/ar/opinionsar/%D9%84%D8%AE%D9%88%D9%81%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%B7%D9%8A%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%82%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%83%D9%84%D9%84%D8%B9%D9%86%D8%B5%D8%B1%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%8A

  • expand button!

    Third Party Actors

    More about category
    composite
    0
    • expand button!
      Applicability of the Law to Third-Party Actors
      More about category
      • expand button!
        34
        Score
        NO
        In law, third-party actors (foundations, think tanks, unions, political action committees, etc.) report itemized contributions received and expenditures to an oversight authority and the information is made publicly available.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) third-party actors are required to report to the oversight authority itemized contributions received and expenditures related to their support of electoral campaigns, and 2) the information must be publicly available.

        A MODERATE score is earned where third-party actors are required to report itemized contributions received and expenditures related to their support of electoral campaigns, but the information is not required to be publicly available. A MODERATE score is also earned where regulations exist, but only apply to electoral campaigns of one actor (whether political party or individual candidate).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        No such law exists.

      • expand button!
        35
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do third-party actors (foundations, think tanks, unions, political action committees, etc.) report itemized contributions received and expenditures to an oversight authority?More about indicator

        "There are no laws to force third parties to report on their contributions. Third parties certainly make significant contributions and they can support certain candidates, but no reporting takes place," says Yara Nassar, LADE Executive Director.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where all third-party actors report to an oversight authority both itemized contributions received and itemized expenditures.

        A 50 score is earned where third-party actors report to an oversight authority either itemized contributions received or expenditures, but not both. A 50 score is also earned where the reports refer only to one type of third-party actor, but do not cover others.

        A 0 score is earned where third-party actors rarely or never report itemized contributions received or expenditures.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Ms. Yara Nassar, LADE, Executive Director, September 5, 2014.

      • expand button!
        36
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent can journalists and citizens easily access the financial information of third party actors, including the political spending of those actors in support of political parties and individual candidates?More about indicator

        Sources report that the financial information of third parties actors is not accessible to the public. Indeed, "There is minimal access or rather none to either the actual campaign's budget or to their supporters, including third party actors," says Assaad Thebian, a Lebanese journalist.

        "I wouldn't say that this is impossible, but I would rather say that this is very difficult. In the past, we tried ourselves to collect information on the contributions of third parties, but we were not successful," says Yara Nassar, LADE Executive Director.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) all relevant financial information is freely available online or in hard copy at the cost of photocopying, 2) it can be obtained within two days of requesting it, and 3) it is in a machine readable format (for example in csv or xml format).

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) information is available but in some cases is incomplete or lacking detail, 2) obtaining complete information takes up to a month, or 3) it's not necessarily in machine readable format.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) the information is not publicly available, or 2) obtaining it takes more than three months, or 3) the cost of obtaining it is prohibitive for the regular citizen.

        Sources

        Email interview with Journalist Asaad Thebian, August 30, 2014. Mr. Thebian covers elections and promotes certain candidates on Social Media worked for Civil Campaign for Electoral Reform.

        Phone interview with Ms. Yara Nassar, LADE, Executive Director, September 5, 2014.

      • expand button!
        37
        Score
        --
        Open Question: Please describe how third party-actors (even if they are not regulated by your country's laws) obtain contributions and spend in support of political parties and/or individual candidates.More about indicator

        Third party actors play a regular and significant role in Lebanese electoral campaigns despite the lack of regulation governing their electoral activities. "Types of third-party actors could be anything that works in the service sector. Most of the time these are owned by politicians. For example, in poor areas, children were offered free schooling. This had convinced parents to vote for those candidates who were offering this grant. The importance of third party-voters lies in their ability to channel electoral campaigns into the favor of certain candidates. For example, the Hizbollah party has generated a payroll system in which they abused the municipality and used the money of the water company to support Hizbollah candidates," says Yara Nassar, LADE Executive Director.

        The study on Lebanese elections by The National Democratic Institute backs up the explanation given by Ms Nassar and proves how the promise of service provision has a great influence on voters and their choice of candidates. The role of money in electoral campaigns increasingly meant that the choice of voters was in some cases defined by bribes or the promise of service provision, rather than by policy platforms proposed by candidates.

        Another example from the same study backs up Ms. Nassar's argument and highlights the role of third party actors such as charitable organizations in vote-buying and the large amount of money spent to fund campaigns and certain candidates.

        The news article by Saoud documents the relationship between third party actors and electoral campaigns. Several examples are listed to show how these are manipulated by the candidates. An example is candidate Tala Al Makdissi who used the church and the House of Fatwa to speak to people and lobby for more voters who were present during the speech.

        Scoring Criteria

        To answer this question please: 1) list the types of third-party actors that exist in your country and describe how they work to influence campaigns, 2) explain how important such actors are or not in the context of campaigns, including whether their expenditures are substantial in relation to that of political parties and individual candidates, and 3) if documented evidence indicates they circumvent laws intended to regulate political finance, please explain how and include references to the evidence.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Ms. Yara Nassar, LADE, Executive Director, September 5, 2014.

        Final Report on Lebanese Parliamentary Election, by the National Democratic Institute, June 2009, p.28, p.30 https://www.ndi.org/files/LebaneseElectionsReport_2009.pdf

        News story: Monitoring Elections: Winter and Summer under one sky, by Ghassan Saoud, Al-akhbar, May 2009.
        http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/80952

  • expand button!

    Monitoring and Enforcement

    More about category
    composite
    28
    • expand button!
      Monitoring Capabilities
      More about category
      • expand button!
        38
        Score
        YES
        In law, political finance information is monitored by an independent oversight authority.More about indicator

        According to chapter 5 in the Lebanese Electoral Law, political finance information is monitored by an independent oversight authority, the Supervisory Commission on the Electoral Campaign (SCEC). Article 60 mentions that this Commission is tasked to monitor 'the Electoral Bank account' and review all contributions and expenditures of this account during the electoral period. "The Commission shall form one committee or more to undertake, independently from any other authority, the supervision of candidates’ compliance with the provisions concerning the opening of the electoral campaign bank account, as well as financial support and contributions and expenditure during the electoral campaign."

        The Commission may at any time investigate the 'Electoral Bank Account' and may request further information or documentations where irregularities are uncovered. Article 60 states, "The Commission may at any time, check the electoral campaign account of each candidate and request any information or documents or clarifications."

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) an independent oversight authority is mandated to monitor political finance information, and 2) the authority has investigation and audit powers.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the independent oversight authority is mandated to monitor political finance information, but doesn't have investigation or audit powers.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Parliamentary Election Law No. 25, Chapter 5, Art. 60. 2008. (In Arabic) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=ar-lb (In English) http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        39
        Score
        NO
        In law, high-level appointments to the oversight authority are based on merit.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Article 12, chapter 3, of the Election Law explains that the SCEC shall be "made up of ten members," all of whom are appointed "by virtue of a decree issued by the Council of Ministers upon the suggestion of the Minister," though different members of the Commission are nominated by different institutions. No mention is made of necessary qualifications or conflicts of interest, and the process is not required to be public.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) high-level appointments must be based on merit in a public appointment process; and 2) appointees must be free of conflicts of interest due to personal loyalties, family connections, political party affiliations, business partners or other biases.

        A MODERATE score is earned where high-level appointments must be based on merit in a public appointment process, but the regulations don't forbid appointments involving conflicts of interest or other biases.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Lebanese Electoral Law Chapter 3, article, 2008 http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-THREE--Supervising-the-Elections-Campaign.aspx

      • expand button!
        40
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent are high-level appointments to the oversight authority based on merit?More about indicator

        "There is no advertised competition, it is based on assembly of the qualified individuals by the minister and he choses three out of nine nominees by the cabinet. How independent they are is something cannot be measured or verified, but for sure they are biased..." says Yara Nassar.

        The news article says that members of the Commission are nominated by the Minister of Councils. Therefore, no public competition is in place--there is no public vetting process that ensures that candidates with the most merit and free of bias are selected to the SCEC.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) there is an advertised competition and public vetting process, 2) candidates with the most merit and without conflicts of interest or other biases are appointed.

        A 50 score is earned where the public competition is usually advertised and the vetting process public, but exceptions exist. A 50 score is also earned where candidates with the most merit and without conflicts of interest or other biases are appointed but exceptions exist.

        A 0 score is earned where there's rarely or never a public competition, or appointees are rarely selected on merit or without conflicts of interest or other biases.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Ms. Yara Nassar, LADE, Executive Director, September 5, 2014.

        News article: No suggestions to postpone the elections and the Commission is on the schedule, Elnashra, May 26, 2013. http://www.elnashra.com/news/show/621679/%D9%85%D8%B5%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AD-%D8%A8%D8%AA%D8%A3%D8%AC%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%A6%D8%A9

      • expand button!
        41
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, the independence of high-level appointees is guaranteed.More about indicator

        By Article 14, chapter 3, of the Elections Law, members of the Commission are guaranteed security of tenure: "The term of office of the Commission members shall start as soon as their appointment decree is issued upon the decision of the Council of Ministers, and shall end six months after the universal parliamentary elections."

        By Article 17, they are protected from arbitrary removal, and a due process is established to govern disciplinary actions: "No decision of provisional detention shall be taken against any of the Commission members for acts not related to their work within the Commission, except for flagrant offences (flagrante delicto). The Minister of Justice shall submit a request for commencing proceedings or appropriate legal measures, pursuant to a note from the Court of Cassation Attorney General including the nature, place and time of the act, and relevant summary of evidence supporting such proceedings and penal measures. The request for commencing procedures shall be submitted to the Minister. The Commission shall be convened within one week to consider the request and take the relevant decision after listening to the concerned Commission Member who shall not take part in the vote. The Commission renders its decision based on an absolute majority system of voting within a period one week and sends it to the Minister for approval."

        Article 19 grants the SCEC the authority to "supervise electoral spending pursuant to the provisions of this law, and to receive and audit the financial statements of electoral campaigns of lists and candidates within one month after polling day." It can review cases, but has no clear authority to issue decisions.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) appointees have the authority or mandate to review cases and issue decisions, 2) the law establishes security of tenure, and 3) removal or disciplinary actions are based on due process conducted by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        A MODERATE score is earned where appointees have the authority or mandate to review cases and issue decisions, BUT one of the second two conditions mentioned in the YES criteria is not met.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Lebanese Electoral Law 25, Chapter 3, Article 17; Chapter 5, Article 60, 2008 http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-THREE--Supervising-the-Elections-Campaign.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        42
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent is the independence of high-level appointees guaranteed?More about indicator

        "Members of the Commission are elected by the minister and there is a general consensus on who these members are, so they are not independent. As members of the commission operate inside the ministry, they are granted security of tenure. However, they do not have the power to reinforce any of the decisions they make and so they have a managerial role, just to observe the process and receive financial reports from the candidates," says Mario Abu Zaid, a researcher on Lebanese elections. The SCEC does not issue decisions.

        Following the 2009 parliamentary elections, the Lebanese Transparency Association (LTA), a civil society organization which participated in monitoring the elections, stated in its final monitoring report that “the management of the electoral process should be independent from the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities, which is tantamount to the acknowledgement of Supervisory Commission on the Electoral Campaign. The presence of a minister having political inclinations at the top of the ministry is equivalent to dealing a deadly blow to the principles of transparency and democracy, whereas the presence of a neutral minister remains an exception”.

        In addition, the National Democratic Institute (NDI) in its final monitoring report stated that “while the creation of SCEC was a positive step, the fact that it fell under the authority of the Minister of the Interior stripped it of much administrative and financial autonomy and regulatory authority. The SCEC served as an important forum for complaints in the pre-election period, but its lack of regulatory power and failure to make public much of its findings lessened its impact.”

        Moreover, the study on Lebanese elections by Magnus Ohman addressed the independence of the commission and says that the Commission is not independent and does not have enough power to issue decisions because it is supervised by the Minister of Interior and municipalities, which makes appointees subject to fear and favor on a regular basis.

        No news articles to refer to whether they could be removed or transferred.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where all of the following conditions are met: 1) appointees review cases and issue decisions without fear or favor from other branches of government, and 2) appointees are granted security of tenure and 3) no appointees are removed, disciplined or transferred without due process by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        A 50 score is earned where any of the following conditions apply: 1) appointees generally operate without fear or favor from other branches of government but exceptions exist, or 2) some but not all appointees are granted security of tenure, or 3) appointees are occasionally removed, disciplined or transferred without due process by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        A 0 score is earned where at least one of the following conditions apply: 1) appointees operate with fear or favor from other branches of government, or 2) are not granted security of tenure, or 3) are usually removed, disciplined or transferred without observing due process by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Mario Abu Zaid, political analyst and researcher on Lebanese Elections at Carnegie Endowment Beirut, September 7, 2014.

        Final Report on the Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, National Democratic Institute, June 7 2009, P. 35. https://www.ndi.org/files/LebaneseElectionsReport_2009.pdf

        Final Report on the Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, The Lebanese Transparency Association, 2009, P. 39.
        http://www.transparency-lebanon.org/publications/cfmen.pdf

        Study "The Political Finance Framework in Lebanon", Magnus Ohman, August 2009, IFES, P.6 and p.9 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

      • expand button!
        43
        Score
        --
        Open Question: How does decision-making work in the oversight authority?More about indicator

        "Members of the commission are chosen from syndicates and unions such Lawyers' syndicate and other civil society organization members and they are all involved in desicion making by a majority of votes. The type of the decisions they make are related to media and to monitoring candidate disbursement and expenditure. For instance, when they find breaches by media outlets, all they do is that they send warnings. If some candidates were offended by media campaigns, all they can do is to complain to the higher institutional court. They also send warnings to candidates if they did not submit their report or if they exceed the spending limit. All decision are taken when the majority agrees, just like anywhere else," says Anonymous civil society expert, , trainer and expert on Democratic issues.

        "Decisions of the SCEC were never politicized. Political parties had no influence on our decisions and everyone who says that has subjective opinions," says Khalil Jbara, SCEC member.

        The article posted on the website of the Ministry of Interior says that the commission is comprised of 11 members, 3 are nominated from each of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, Shura Council, Lawyers' Syndicate, Lawyer Syndicate of Tripoli, National Council for Media, Civil Society organizations, Lebanese Association of Certified Public Accountants

        The news article in Assafir refers to the types of the decisions made by the Commission and these are related to receiving applications from media outlets willing to participate in electoral advertisement, monitor the adherence of media and candidates to law and monitor campaign finance.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - The researcher’s answer was clear in defining the decision making process of the SCEC. Its decisions are taken on the basis of absolute majority of members whom legally constitute it according to article 21 of the Electoral law. The SCEC is composed of 10 members mainly judges and experts selected from syndicates and unions such Lawyers' syndicate and other civil society organization members. The SCEC work was evaluated by international observers such as the European Union (EU) which believe that the SCEC “have conducted its work in an impartial manner," adding that the Commission faced the challenge of enforcing often insufficiently specific regulations and as a result was sometimes ineffective.

        In addition the National Democratic Institute (NDI), referred to political pressure the SCEC was subject to by stating that the SCEC appeared to not see the merit in making information on violations public, which may be due to political pressure the Commission would face if the information was released”.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please describe: 1) the composition of the decision-making body within the oversight authority, 2) the type of decisions it's allowed to make and makes in practice, and 3) in which cases majority is required. If there have been well substantiated complaints about the decision-making process being ineffective or politicized please explain.

        Sources

        Phone interview with anonymous civil society expert, trainer and expert on democratic issues and one of the founders of LADE, September 14, 2014.

        Phone interview with Dr. Khalil Jbara, member of the SCEC, October 7, 2014.

        Article: Marwan Charbel explains the proposal for the electoral law, Ministry of Interior website, (anonymous writer) October 10, 2011, http://ftp.moim.gov.lb/UI/news/news603.html

        News article: Is the government trying to breach elections as an excuse for extension? by Elie Al Frzli, Assafir, September 17, 2014, http://www.assafir.com/Article/1/372668

        The names of anonymous sources are known to Global Integrity and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose them.

        Reviewer's sources: European Union Election Observation Mission to Lebanon Final Report on the 7 June 2009 Parliamentary Elections, cited at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/20092014/documents/dmas/dv/rapportfinal/rapportfinal_en.pdf

        Final Report on the Lebanese Parliamentary Elections, National Democratic Institute, June 7 2009, P. 35, cited at: https://www.ndi.org/files/LebaneseElectionsReport_2009.pdf

      • expand button!
        44
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent does the authority have sufficient capacity to monitor political finance regulations?More about indicator

        "I believe that the Commission has enough staff and budget. The ministry has enough resources to help them do their work. It is probably worth to mention that they only gather information, reports and other related material. Back in 2009, the SCEC proposed a list of recommendations to strenghten its capacities, but in practice nothing was implemented."

        "I don't think that they do have enough staff to deal with all the financial reports they received from candidates after the electoral period. That's why you cannot access the financial rerport online. They couldn't accomplish the task," says Ms. Yara Nassar, LADE Executive Director.

        There is no clear explanation about the staff and the budget in the news. IFES study says that it is time-consuming for the Commission to audit all reports submitted by the candidates, and this may be the result of a lack of staff.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) the authority has sufficient budget to monitor all incoming reports, and 2) it has sufficient staff to review all incoming reports.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) the authority has insufficient budget to monitor all incoming reports, or 2) its staff can only review half of all incoming reports.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) the authority can't fulfill most of its essential functions due to budget constraints, or 2) its staff only has the capacity to review 25% or less of all incoming reports.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Mario Abu Zaid, political analyst and researcher on Lebanese Elections at Carnegie Endowment Beirut, September 7, 2014.

        Phone interview with Yara Nassar, LADE Executive Director, September 28, 2014.

        Study: The Political Finance Framework in Lebanon, by Magnus Ohman, IFES, 2009 p. 8 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

      • expand button!
        45
        Score
        100
        In practice, to what extent does the authority conduct investigations or audits when necessary?More about indicator

        "They do audit but their role is confined to monitoring before, during and after the elections," says Mario Abu Zaid, Researcher on Lebanese elections.

        SCEC carried out several investigations related to: 1- Electoral bank account and requested financial information from the banks. 2- Sources of in-kind donations of candidates, whether Lebanese or foreign 3- Payments made to media outlets by candidates to increase electoral advertisement

        The study by Ohman says that the Commission audits the reports submitted by the candidates. However, there are no details to explain how this is done or should be done.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where the authority conducted at least three investigations or audits during the most recent electoral campaign.

        A 50 score is earned where the authority conducted at least one investigation or audit during the most recent electoral campaign.

        A 0 score is earned where the authority didn't conduct any investigation or audit during the most recent electoral campaign.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Mario Abu Zaid, political analyst and researcher on Lebanese Elections at Carnegie Endowment Beirut, September 7, 2014.

        Study: The political finance framework in Lebanon, by Magnus Ohman, IFES, 2009. p.6 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

        Final Report of the SCEC, 2009 Parliamentary Elections. http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-EN.aspx http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-AR_.aspx

      • expand button!
        46
        Score
        25
        In practice, to what extent does the authority publish the results of investigations or audits?More about indicator

        "The Commission publishes its final report on the website after the completion of the electoral period which includes all related information," says Mario Abou Zaid, a researcher on Lebanese elections.

        The SCEC report includes the results of the monitoring after the electoral period. Key observations are related to the notorized financial reports and the accuracy of the numbers presented in them (for example, mistakes were found in 67 financial report and missing data in 43 report, in-kind contributions were checked (for example workers, organizers, electoral offices) and other mistakes related to the media. Final report was published six months after the electoral period.

        The Commission's report is available online. The contents page lists the financial information of candidates as being contained in the report's appendix, but appendices are not accessible online. SCEC published three draft reports before the final one. All four are available online, but with dysfunctional links. The results of the investigations appeared in several stages. According to experts first preliminary report was available two months after the completion of audits, followed by the second, third, and finally the fourth and final report which was published six months after the completion of audits. The date of the SCEC's publication is not accessible, but regular reports were published between 1 and 6 months after the conclusion of investigations.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. The final SCEC report does not contain a date of publication, but in reference to newspapers articles the report was published in January 2009, exactly six months following the parliamentary elections held in June 2009.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where the authority publishes reports of all its investigations or audits a month or less after their conclusion.

        A 50 score is earned where reports are available to the public more than a month after the conclusion of the investigation or audit.

        A 0 score is earned where reports are not available to the public or they become available after six months or more after conclusion of the investigation or audit. A 0 score is also earned where only summaries of the reports are publicly available.

        Sources

        Phone interview with Mario Abu Zaid, political analyst and researcher on Lebanese Elections at Carnegie Endowment Beirut, September 7, 2014.

        Final Report by the SCEC, 2009 http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports/SCEC-Report-AR_.aspx

        All SCEC reports on the 2009 Elections: http://www.elections.gov.lb/parliamentary/SCEC/SCEC-Reports.aspx?lang=en-us


        Reviewer's sources: The monitoring commission- early retirement? by Maha Zaraket, Al Akhbar, February 6, 2010, http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/57362

    • expand button!
      Enforcement Capabilities
      More about category
      • expand button!
        47
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, there are sanctions in response to political finance violations.More about indicator

        Chapter five of the Lebanese Electoral law defines clear sanctions for political finance violations. Those who breach the provisions set forth in the law are sentenced to six months imprisonment and to a fine ranging between 50 million LBP and 100 million LBP (equivalent to about $33,000 US and $66,000 US). However, specific sanctions for specific violations are not clearly defined--gaps in the enforcement framework exist.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) the law clearly defines violations of political finance laws, and 2) there are clearly defined sanctions for specific violations.

        A MODERATE score is earned where violations are clearly defined but sanctions for specific violations are not.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Lebanese Electoral Law, 25, Chapter 5, Article 62, 2008 http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        48
        Score
        NO
        In law, the oversight authority has the power to impose sanctions.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        The SCEC does not have the authority to impose sanctions. Its remit is limited to referring documents and statements of accounts of candidates to the Constitutional Council When a challenge is submitted according to article 62 of the Electoral law which also states that “Whoever intentionally breaches any of the provisions of this chapter shall be sentenced to 6 months imprisonment at most and to a fine ranging between 50 million LBP and 100 million LBP, or to one of the said sentences, with no prejudice to sanctions of penal crimes as per the law”. The SCEC certainly lacks the authority to prosecute violators, and can only make recommendations to the public prosecutor, who then decides whether to pursue prosecution.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) the oversight authority has the power to impose sanctions, and 2) it can directly prosecute violators before the courts or is independent to send cases to public prosecution.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the oversight authority has the power to impose sanctions, but it can't directly prosecute violators before the courts or is not independent to send cases to public prosecution.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources

        Lebanese Electoral Law, 25, Chapter 5, Article 62, 2008 http://www.elections.gov.lb/Parliamentary/Legal-Framework/Election-Law/CHAPTER-FIVE--Electoral-Funding-and-Spending.aspx?lang=en-us

      • expand button!
        49
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do offenders comply with sanctions imposed?More about indicator

        "No one complies with the sanctions imposed by the Commission. For example, the Commission found violations with some media companies who exceeded their limit determined by the law to campaign for certain candidates by providing them with extra access to airtime during elections. They did not stick to the law which specifies the role of the media during elections. No one took the reports filed by the Commission seriously. So their reports are just ink on paper," says an anonymous civil society expert on Lebanese elections.

        The study conducted by Magnus Ohman refers to the sanctions determined by the law. According to the law sanctions include fines of between 50 and 100 million Lebanese pounds (around USD 33 to 67 thousand), imprisonment of six months or both in case anyone breaches the provisions in Chapter 5, article 62, but experts think that these sanctions have no effect. The study concludes that no previous sanctions were documented which shows the weakness of the system.

        The news article says that the commission did not monitor all breaches related to the media or the financing electoral campaigns. Its reports are insufficient to force offenders to comply with the sanctions imposed.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) offenders comply with the sanctions imposed without exception, and 2) they are not repeat offenders.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) offenders usually comply with the sanctions imposed but exceptions exist, or 2) most are not repeat offenders but some exceptions exist.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) offenders rarely comply with the sanctions imposed, or 2) most are repeat offenders.

        Sources

        Phone interview with anonymous civil society expert, trainer and expert on democratic issues and one of the founders of LADE, September 14, 2014.

        Study "The Political Finance Framework in Lebanon", Magnus Ohman, August 2009, IFES, P.6 and p.9 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

        News article: The monitoring commission- early retirement? by Maha Zaraket, Al Akhbar, February 6, 2010, http://www.al-akhbar.com/node/57362

        The names of anonymous sources are known to Global Integrity and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose them.

      • expand button!
        50
        Score
        --
        Open Question: How strong is enforcement, and what impedes more effective enforcement?More about indicator

        "The current problem with the system is the monitoring body or the Commission. Its current role is just to advise and its decision are not strong and it doesn't have judicial or legislative authority. We need to reform the system. We demand an independent body which is not politicized and it is supervised by the Ministry of Interior. The Commission should be independent to be able to administer the electoral campaigns and elections in general," says an anonymous civil society exper and trainer on Democratic issues.

        According to the IFES study, problems with reinforcement are related to the publishing the reports received from the candidates and making them available to the public. That will be an important step to ensure transparency.

        There is a paragraph in the news article in which the writer is proposing reforms. One of his suggestions is the creation of an independent electoral commission.

        The news article by AL Nahar newspaper provides an overview of Ziad Baroud's, former Interior Minister reform suggestions. Baroud says that the commission's work is not regular as it stops it activities after publishing its final report and this is a major problem. We need a permanent commission to monitor parliamentary, municipal and sub-national elections and it should be fully independent.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - The political life in Lebanon is threatened by the abuse of democratic principles and the absence of fair and transparent parliamentary elections. Reforms introduced to the Electoral law No. 25 of 2008 remained inefficient, and resulted in an unfair advantage accruing to some candidates during the recent parliamentary elections of 2009. The lack of citizens’ awareness on transparent and fair elections and the absence of the pre-printed ballots which guarantee the right to a secret ballot suggest that vote-buying is common, especially in rural areas suffering from economic problems, resulting in citizens voting against their free will.

        Therefore there is an urgent need in Lebanon to promote the values of fair and transparent elections and adopt the pre-printed ballot system. All political parties and heasd of parliamentary blocs understand the importance of winning the upcoming elections. Based on the elections’ results the identity of the next President of the Republic will be revealed and a new coalition will be established leading to the formation of a new government that will be responsible at a later stage of developing an economic and political reform plans for the country.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please provide a general explanation of the effectiveness of enforcement, describing: 1) any conditions that may prevent effective enforcement, and 2) explain what are the most urgent areas of reform in the country's political finance system.

        Sources

        Phone interview with anonymous civil society expert, trainer and expert on democratic issues and one of the founders of LADE, September 14, 2014.

        Study: The Political Finance Framework in Lebanon, by Magnus Ohman, IFES, 2009 p. 8 http://www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Money%20and%20Politics/Research%20and%20Publications/Reports%20and%20Papers/English/Politicalfinancein_Lebanon.pdf

        Article: Electoral Reform in Lebanon, by Deen Sharp, Foreign Policy Center, 2010. http://fpc.org.uk/articles/457

        News article: Baroud provides legislative approaches to related to decisions by the Council of Ministers in its nominations to the oversight commission members, (anonymous writer), AL Nahar, September 12, 2014, item 5: http://www.annahar.com/article/170257-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%AF-%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%AF%D9%85-%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%B7%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%82-%D8%A8%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D9%85%D8%AC%D9%84%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%8A%D9%8A%D9%86-%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%A6%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D8%B4%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%81-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%85%D9%84%D8%A9

        The names of anonymous sources are known to Global Integrity and Global Integrity has agreed not to disclose them.

Lebanon has a majoritarian electoral system with a unicameral legislature and an indirectly elected head of state. The President is elected to six year terms by members of Parliament; presidential candidates need the votes of 2/3 of Parliament in order to be elected. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who serves as the head of state. The President is required to be a Maronite, and the Prime Minister must be a Sunni Muslim (the Speaker of Parliament is reserved for Shi'a).

The 128 members of the Assembly of Representatives are directly elected every four years according to the principles of confessional distribution. Each religious community is allotted a certain number of seats in the Assembly, but all candidates in each district must receive a plurality in order to be elected. Seats are split across 26 electoral districts. Campaign funds are predominantly managed by candidates, but parties may contribute to the candidate's electoral bank account.

Nowadays, the Lebanese political system is malfunctioning due to the division between the two main rival political camps, the March 8 and March 14 coalitions. This division led to the occurrence of numerous political, security and technical events resulting in the postponement of both the parliamentary and presidential elections due respectively in June 2013 and May 2014. Between 2005 and 2014, three different types of elections were held; the parliamentary elections in 2005 and 2009, the presidential election in 2008, and the municipal election in 2010. The 2009 parliamentary elections resulted in the March 14 coalition securing 71 seats and the March 8 coalition winning the remaining 57 seats.