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Sweden

In law
39
In practice
50

The Swedish political finance system provides direct public funding for both parties and candidates. This funding takes the form of reimbursements after campaigns, and is applied equitably in practice. Parties and candidates do not, however, receive any indirect assistance. Intriguingly, Sweden does not explicitly ban the use of non-financial state resources during campaigns, and yet, no such resources are used. This fact makes Sweden one of a few outliers in the MPT sample. Restrictions on contribution and expenditure are mostly nonexistent. For funding, parties rely primarily on public disbursements, though private donations and party held businesses also provide some financing. A new 2014 law now requires parties and candidates have to report on their contributions received on an annual basis. No other requirements exist, and the law has not yet been in place long enough to assess whether, in practice, reports are actually filed. Before the passage of this new law, parties came to an informal agreement by which they self-published their contributions received each year. This meant that, in practice, the public had access to some political finance information, but no data on expenditures was available. The independent political activities of third party actors are not regulated under Swedish law. The 2014 reform designated a new authority, the Legal, Financial, and Administrative Services Agency (LFAS), to oversee political finance. In law, the LFAS does not have investigative powers, though it can enforce sanctions for failures to comply with the law. At the time of this research, the LFAS had yet to oversee an election campaign, making it difficult to assess its enforcement of sanctioning authority.

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    Direct and Indirect Public Funding

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      Direct Public Funding
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        YES
        In law, there is direct public funding for electoral campaigns.More about indicator

        Swedish law allocates direct public funding on an annual basis but not specifically for electoral campaigns; such direct public funding is not restricted from use in electoral campaigns. State subsidies are given to political parties or to candidates that have successfully run for their party in a personal campaign (1972:625, section 1, paragraph 2, clause 1 and 2).

        Specifically, the 1972 Act on state financial support to political parties states in section 1 that financial support is paid to political parties that have taken part in elections to the Riksdag. They are divided into 'party support' and 'secretariat support' (section 2), where secretariat support is further divided into basic support and supplementary support (section 5).

        In addition, the parliamentary part of political parties in Sweden also received direct public funding for their work, according to the 1999 Act concerning support the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups. Section 1 says that parliamentary party groups are paid three kinds of public funding: basic support. support for the costs of political secretaries to members of the Riksdag and support for the costs of foreign travel.

        According to the 2010 Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag, women's organisations as part of or affiliated with political parties that are represented in the Riksdag receive state support. This is divided into basic support and mandate support (section 1).

        Local government councils are allowed, but not required, to provide public funding to political parties represented in the council.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where there is direct public funding for both political parties and individual candidates to campaign. A 100 also applies where only one of the two actors can be elected and, therefore, only one is entitled to direct public funding.

        A MODERATE score is earned where per law only one of the two actors (either political parties or individual candidates) is allocated direct public funding to campaign, even though both can be elected.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); section 1; 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); section 1; 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); Section 1; 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • Swedish local government act (1991:900); chapter 2, sections 9-10; 1991; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/02/95/35/ca584fee.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Kommunallag-1991900_sfs-1991-900/

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        YES
        In law, there is a transparent and equitable mechanism to determine direct public funding for electoral campaigns.More about indicator

        Swedish law allocates direct public funding on an annual basis in a transparent and equitable way, and direct public funding is not restricted from use in electoral campaigns. The 1999 Act on state support to parliamentary parties distinguishes between parties and individual representatives (section 17) as does the 1972 Act on state support (candidates that have successfully run for their party in a personal campaign, section 1, paragraph 2).

        For the general state support to political parties, according to the 1972 Act, parties received SEK 333 300 (USD 48,186) 'party support' for each seat held in the Riksdag while parties that had won at least 2.5% of the vote but no seats were awarded such support with the stated amount awarded for every full tenth of a percentage point above 2.5% (section 2-3).. 'Secretariat support' is divided into 'basic support' and 'supplementary support' (section 5). Basic support is paid to parties that have received at least 4 per cent of the votes nationwide in an election to the Riksdag for each year covered by the election, amounting to SEK 5 803 200 (USD 838,974) per year (section 6). Parties that have won representation in the Riksdag but have not gained 4 per cent of the votes receive, for each year covered by the election, as many fourteenths of one full basic support amount as correspond to the number of seats won (section 7). Parties that fall in any of the two categories mentioned above receive supplementary support in addition. Parties receive it for each year covered by the election in the amount of SEK 16 350 for each seat won if the party is represented in the Government, and otherwise SEK 24 300 (USD 3,513) for each seat won.

        The 1999 Act on state support for parliamentary parties states in section 4 that basic support consists of a basic amount and a supplementary amount. The basic amount is SEK 1 700 000 (USD 245,771) per year, and the supplementary amount is SEK 57 000 (USD 8,241) per year. Section 5 clarifies the eligibility criteria: A party group representing a government party is entitled to one basic amount. Every other party group is entitled to two times the basic amount. According to section 6, a party group is entitled to a supplementary amount for every seat in the Riksdag the party won in the most recent general election. Additionally, secretariat support is paid to parliamentary parties according to the criterium that it is to be equivalent to the cost of one political secretary per member of the Riksdag. The amount of SEK 48 800 (USD 7,056) per political secretary per month is to form the basis of calculations when determining the total amount of support (section 10). Travel costs are reimbursed if they have been spent for two different purposes. According to section 14 of the Act, support for the travel costs for members of the Riksdag to participate in cooperation in the European Union is paid to party groups at the level of SEK 2 500 (USD 361) per year for a member of the Riksdag belonging to the party group. If a member of the Riksdag is participating in international conferences abroad and undertakes other foreign travels, the respective party group receives support at the level of SEK 5 000 (USD 723) per year for the first 20 seats that the party won in the most recent election to the Riksdag, and at a level of SEK 2 500 (USD 361) per year for every additional seat that the party won in the election (section 15). Finally, section 17 states that individual representatives who have been elected to the Riksdag as a result of their party winning a minimum of twelve per cent of the votes in that member's own constituency are also entitled to state support. They receive, in line with all other provisions of the Act, basic support amounting to one ninth of the sum paid to a party that is not a party in the Government, secretariat support (according to section 10) and support for participating in international conferences and other travels abroad (according to section 15a).

        The Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010: 473) distinguishes between basic support and mandate support. Section 5 states that the basic support is paid annually. The joint basic support amounts to 55 per cent of the entire state support for women's organisations and is to be divided equally amongst those entitled to it, according to section 2. Mandate support is also paid annually. Each mandate support is the equivalent of 1/349 of 45 per cent of the joint entire state support for women's organisations. Each women's organisations receives this support for every mandate the party won in the most recent election (section 6).

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) direct public funding for political parties and individual candidates' electoral campaigns is allocated through a clearly defined calculation mechanism that is transparent and equitable, and 2) there are clearly defined eligibility criteria.

        A MODERATE score is earned where direct public funding for political party and individual candidates' electoral campaigns is allocated through a clearly defined calculation mechanism that is transparent and equitable, but eligibility criteria are not clearly defined.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); sections 2-3, 6-8; 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); sections 5, 6, 10, 14, 15 and 17; 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); Section 5 and 6; 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

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        100
        In practice, to what extent is the mechanism to determine direct public funding for electoral campaigns transparent, equitable and consistently applied?More about indicator

        The interviewees report that state support to political parties is always defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism; the defined eligibility criteria are applied consistently.

        For example, in the 2010 parliamentary election the right-wing Sweden Democrats won 5.7 per cent of votes, which translated into 20 seats in parliament for the next four years. This also meant a steep increase in the level of party support the party was eligible for. State support for the Sweden Democrats rose from about 1 million to 110 million SEK (145,103 USD to 15,961,297 USD)

        In addition, newspapers’ reports and comments on the level of party support and their allocation indicates that party support is guided by a clearly defined, transparent and equitable calculation mechanism. For example, in 2014 Dagens Nyheter reported that the right-wing Sweden Democrats receive party support in accordance with the law for the seats they hold in local councils despite failing to attend council meetings regularly.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) electoral campaigns allocations are always defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism, and 2) the defined eligibility criteria are applied consistently.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) electoral campaign allocations are usually defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism but exceptions exist, or 2) the eligibility criteria are usually applied but exceptions exist.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) political campaign allocations are rarely or never defined through a clearly defined transparent and equitable calculation mechanism, or 2) the defined eligibility criteria are rarely applied.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Marijana Dragic, 3rd July 2014, ‘SD får en miljon trots tomma stolar’ [SD receives one million despite empty chairs], Dagens Nyheter; http://www.dn.se/sthlm/sd-far-en-miljon-trots-tomma-stolar/C9+C9+C9+D9

        • Clas Svahn, 31st October 2012, ‘170 miljoner i partistöd’ [170 million party support], Dagens Nyheter; http://www.dn.se/ekonomi/170-miljoner-i-partistod/

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        100
        In practice, to what extent does the entity in charge of public funding make disbursement information publicly available?More about indicator

        Interviewees and the news report state that information on the public funding of political parties is published shortly after the decision is taken and that the information is publicly available on the website of the Swedish Parliament.

        Specifically, the partibidragsnämnden (Commission on Financial Support to the Political Parties) is responsible for the allocation of state subsidies, as informed by Birgitta Nygren from Transparency and International (see also section 13 of the Act on state financial support to political parties, 1972:625). It also publishes the results of their decision on the parliament's website in form of a press release.

        An inventory of decisions taken for the current electoral cycle (2010-2014) shows that the decisions were all published within a couple of days.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) complete information on the disbursements is published less than a month after disbursement, and 2) the information is available on the Internet for free or in hard copy at photocopying cost.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) the information published is incomplete or published more than two months after disbursement, or 2) obtaining the information costs more than photocopying.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) disbursement information is published more than four months after disbursement, or 2) no disbursement information is published or released upon request.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Clas Svahn, 31st October 2012, '170 miljoner i partistöd' [170 million party support] in Dagens Nyheter, http://www.dn.se/ekonomi/170-miljoner-i-partistod/

        • Website of the Swedish parliament: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/

        • 2014: Decision taken on 5th November 2013 and published on 5th November 2013; http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Press-startsida/pressmeddelanden/201314/Partibidragsnamndens-beslut-om-stod-till-politiska-partier-/

        • 2013: Decision taken on 31st October 2012 and published on 31st October 2012; http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Press-startsida/pressmeddelanden/201213/Partibidragsnamndens-beslut-om-stod-till-politiska-partier/

        • 2012: Decision taken on 23rd October 2011 and published on 24th October 2011; http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Press-startsida/pressmeddelanden/2011121/Partibidragsnamndens-beslut-om-stod-till-politiska-partier/

        • 2011: Decision taken on 26th October 2010 and published on 27th October 2010; http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Press-startsida/pressmeddelanden/2010111/Partibidragsnamndens-beslut-om-stod-till-politiska-partier/

        • Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, Party Support per Municipality 2010. 2011. http://www.skl.se/download/18.a827c16146db10f89a5eac/1403880261339/skl-lista-partistod-kommuner-2010.pdf

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      Indirect Public Funding
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        5
        Score
        NO
        In law, use of state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates is prohibited.More about indicator

        No such law exists. Section 10 of the Local Government Act does note that any party support allocated by municipal assemblies "may not be designed in such a way as to be unduly favourable or prejudicial to a party," but no other prohibitions on the use of state resources exist.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where there is an explicit ban on the use of state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates. A YES is also earned where there are clearly defined exceptions, which are accessible to all actors equally.

        A MODERATE score is earned where an explicit ban exists but it only applies to one of the two actors, even though both can be elected. A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        A NO score is also earned where the law exists, but allows discretionary exceptions.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Swedish local government act (1991:900); chapter 2, section 10; 1991; English: D15+D15+D15+D15+D16; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Kommunallag-1991900_sfs-1991-900/

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        100
        In practice, to what extent are no state resources used in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates' electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        The interviewees report that state resources are not used in favour of or against political parties and candidates.

        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. In each election, the government party/parties are accused of using valfläsk ("election pork") to gain electoral support. However, being seen to use such an approach normally politically damaging to any party. Blatant abuse of state resources is not found acceptable by the electorate. There is of course a grey zone between incumbency advantage and abuse of state resources.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where there is no evidence of authorities using state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates. A 100 is also earned where there are clearly defined exceptions and are equally accessible to all actors.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) documented evidence indicates occasional use of state resources in favor of or against political parties and individual candidates, or 2) clearly defined exceptions are not equally accessible to all actors.

        A 0 score is earned where documented evidence indicates regular use of state resources in favor of or against certain political parties and individual candidates.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Peter Esaiasson, professor in political science at University of Gothenburg, 3rd August 2014

        Reviewer's sources: Henrik Oscarsson, "Varför valfläsk inte fungerar (Why Election Promises Do Not Work)." Blog, January 13, 2010. http://www.henrikoscarsson.com/2009/12/varfor-valflask-inte-funkar-1.html

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        7
        Score
        NO
        In law, political parties and individual candidates have free or subsidized access to equitable air time for electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) free or subsidized access to air time for electoral campaigns is granted in a transparent, equitable way, and 2) there are clearly defined eligibility criteria.

        A MODERATE score is earned where free or subsidized access to air time for electoral campaigns is granted in a transparent, equitable way, but eligibility criteria are not clearly defined.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • The Elections Act (2005:837); 2005; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/06/44/45/722c9ee2.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Vallag-2005837_sfs-2005-837/?bet=2005:837

        • Radio and Television Act (2010:696); English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Radio--och-tv-lag-2010696_sfs-2010-696/

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        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent is free or subsidized access to air time provided in a transparent, equitable way to political parties and individual candidates for electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        Not applicable. The law provides no free or subsidised access to airtime for political campaigns. The limited amount of existing access is not entirely transparent.

        In Sweden only private channels are allowed to broadcast political advertisement, if their terms and conditions do not demand impartiality. TV4 is the only channel that excluded impartiality from their terms and conditions in 2009. The 2009 EU election was the first that TV4 covered.

        The channel has the freedom to sell airtime to their conditions, according to Rebecca Parman from the Swedish Broadcasting Authority. The channel also selects which advertisement is sent.

        However, TV4’s guidelines are not entirely clear. In 2010, the channel refused to air advertisement from the Sweden Democrats on the basis that it collided with laws on democracy as part of the Television and Radio Act.

        TV4 explained afterwards in an interview that it grants all parties access to airtime as long as they abide to the general rules of the Freedom of Expression and the laws on democracy built into the Television and Radio Act.

        The channel is free to make its own decisions on what, when or how much to broadcast.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) free or subsidized access to media advertising is always provided in a transparent and equitable way, and 2) the defined eligibility criteria are applied consistently.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) free or subsidized access to media advertising is usually provided in a transparent and equitable way, but exceptions exist, or 2) the eligibility criteria are not always applied.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) there's rarely free or subsidized access to air time for political campaign, and 2) access exists but is not provided in a transparent, equitable way.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Rebecca Parman, lawyer at the Department of Oversight, Swedish Broadcasting Authority (myndigheten för radio och tv), 25th July 2014

        • Interview with Peter Esaiasson, professor in political science at the University of Gothenburg, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Malin Häger, Communications and Marketing at TV4, 24th July 2014

        • Kristoffer Törnmalm, 16th March 2014, ‘Mycekt SD-reklam att vänta’ [Much SD advertisement waiting] in Dagens Nyheter, http://www.dn.se/valet-2014/mycket-sd-reklam-att-vanta/

        • Axel Andén, 8th June 2010, ‘TV4 har specifika regler för politisk reklam’ [TV4 has specific rules for political advertisement] in Medie världen, http://www.medievarlden.se/nyheter/2010/06/tv4-har-specifika-regler-for-politisk-reklam

        • Mats J Larsson and Jenny Kallin, 28th August 2010, ‘TV4 stoppar SDs reklamfilm’ [TV€ stops Sweden Democrats’ advertisement] in Dagens Nyheter, http://www.dn.se/nyheter/valet-2010/tv4-stoppar-sds-reklamfilm/

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    Contribution and Expenditure Restrictions

    More about category
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    12
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      General Rules on Electoral Campaign Contributions
      More about category
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        9
        Score
        NO
        In law, cash contributions are banned.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where cash contributions are banned and all financial contributions must be made via the banking system.

        A MODERATE score is earned where cash contributions are allowed up to a maximum limit, regardless of the limit.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        10
        Score
        NO
        In law, there is a ban on anonymous contributions.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        The Act on state financial support to political parties only states that parties and candidates that have successfully competed in the election with a personal campaign for a party are not eligible for state funding if they received anonymous contributions in the previous year (section 1, paragraph 1 and 2).

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where the law stipulates that anonymous contributions are banned.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the ban exists, but it applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates). A MODERATE score is also earned where small anonymous donations are allowed up to a maximum threshold equal to or less than the equivalent to US$300.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • The Elections Act (2005:837); 2005; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/06/44/45/722c9ee2.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Vallag-2005837_sfs-2005-837/?bet=2005:837

        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; section 1; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        11
        Score
        YES
        In law, in-kind donations to political parties and individual candidates must be reported.More about indicator

        According to the 2014 Act on transparency of party finances, all contributions must be reported. This also includes cash, goods, services and everything else that was received without anything in return (section 6).

        This applies to political parties and candidates that were elected into Riksdag with their personal campaign (section 4).

        Contributions have to be reported for each accounting year (section 5) to the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) (section 10) according to accounting law rules as stipulated in the accounting law (section 9).

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where all in-kind donations must be reported to the oversight authority.

        A MODERATE score is also earned if the requirement to report such information exists, but applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 4-6, 9 and 10; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/
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        12
        Score
        NO
        In law, loans to political parties and individual candidates must be reported.More about indicator

        According to the 2014 Act on transparency of party finances, all contributions must be reported. This also includes money, goods, services and everything else that was received without anything in return (section 6).

        This applies to political parties and candidates that were elected into Riksdag with their personal campaign (section 4).

        Contributions have to be reported for each accounting year (section 5) to the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) (section 10) according to accounting law rules as stipulated in the accounting law (section 9).

        The law explicitly mentions monetary contributions that do not or only partially require anything in return in section 6 paragraph 2. However, the law does not refer to loans. Indeed, according to Märeta Gröndal, head of administration at the Legal, Financial and Administrative Service Agency, loans do not need to be reported.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where all loans must be reported to the oversight authority.

        A MODERATE score is earned where loans must be reported, but the requirement applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 4-6, 9 and 10; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • Interview with Märeta Gröndal, head of administration at the Legal, Financial and Administrative Service Agency, 26th November 2014

    • expand button!
      Limits on Contributions and Expenditures during Electoral Campaign Periods
      More about category
      • expand button!
        13
        Score
        NO
        In law, contributions from individuals are limited to a maximum amount.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) individuals may not contribute more than a maximum amount established by the law.

        A MODERATE score is earned where a maximum amount exists, but it applies only to contributions for one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates). A MODERATE score is also earned where individuals are forbidden from making any contribution.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        14
        Score
        NO
        In law, contributions from corporations are limited to a maximum amount.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) corporations may not contribute more than a maximum amount established by the law.

        A MODERATE score is earned where a maximum amount or ban exists, but it applies only to contributions for one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates). A MODERATE score is also earned where corporations are forbidden from making any contribution.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        15
        Score
        NO
        In law, contributions from foreign sources are banned.More about indicator

        Chapter 19, section 13 of the Swedish Penal Code prohibits contributions from only some foreign sources. It says that a person who accepts money or other property from a foreign power or from any person abroad who is acting in the interest of a foreign power to influence public opinion shall be sentenced for acceptance of foreign assistance to imprisonment for at most two years. Note that as the ban in the Penal Code refers to "foreign powers", meaning states (and some international organisations), it does not relate to foreign individuals or non-state organisations (including foreign political parties or companies. These are therefore arguably free to make donations to political parties and candidates in Sweden.

        Indeed, Swedish law defines the term 'foreign power' as any state that is recognised by Sweden as independent, also covering other state formations such as newly formed states which have not yet been recognised, state governments, or governments in exile and resistance or insurgent groups, if they occupy a real position of power and political importance to diplomatic relations with Sweden. Also some international organisations such as United Nations (UN), European Union (EU) and NATO can be a foreign power.

        However, according to the commentary to the law, it applies to any political action, including propaganda, that is directed against the state with the intention of treason. This means that it may also extend to electoral campaigns.

        The commentary refers to persons and group of people that try to, for example, influence governmental regulations of importing goods in their own interest. Political parties, individuals, and companies can be subsumed under the term 'group of people'. Swedish law is not explicit in this regard, but it does appear to leave some space through which foreign sources can legally contribute to electoral campaigns.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where it is forbidden for political parties and individual candidates to receive contributions (financial or in-kind) from foreign sources.

        A MODERATE score is earned where: 1) the ban exists but it applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates), or 2) contributions from foreign sources are allowed to a maximum amount.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Swedish Penal Code (1962:700); 1962; chapter 19, section 13; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/02/77/77/cb79a8a3.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Brottsbalk-1962700_sfs-1962-700/#K18

        • Council on Legislation, 10th October 2013, 'Förstärkt skydd mot främmande makts underrättelseverksamhet' [Enhanced protection a foreign enemy intelligence]; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/22/60/79/91e376b6.pdf; section 4.2.1

        Secondary source: - Axberger, H.G. (1984), Tryckfrihetens gränser [Boundaries of the Freedom of Press]; Petrén, S. (1950), Högförräderi och uppror i 1948 års strafflagstiftning, i Festskrift till Birger Ekeberg, s. 410 ff.; Ulväng, M., Jareborg, N., Friberg, S. & Asp, P. (2012), Brotten mot allmänheten och staten.

        Reviewer's source: Swedish Penal Code (1962:700); 1962; chapter 19, section 13; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/02/77/77/cb79a8a3.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Brottsbalk-1962700_sfs-1962-700/#K18

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        16
        Score
        NO
        In law, contributions from third-party actors (unions, foundations, think tanks, political action committees, etc.) are limited to a maximum amount or banned.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) third-party actors may not contribute more than a maximum amount established by the law, or 2) are forbidden from making any contribution.

        A MODERATE score is earned where: 1) the maximum amount or ban exists only for the majority of third-party actors, but not all, or 2) the maximum amount or ban exists, but applies only to contributions for either political parties or individual candidates.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        17
        Score
        NO
        In law, election campaign spending by political parties and individual candidates is limited to a maximum amount.More about indicator

        No such law exists.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. Note that the new law passed in 2014 about public insight into party financing does not inlclude any regulations on party spending, in elections or during other periods.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where it is forbidden for political parties and individual candidates to spend more than a certain amount in a political campaign.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the maximum amount exists, but it applies only to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

        • Act concerning support for the parliamentary work of members of the Riksdag and parliamentary party groups (1999:1209); 1999; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/59/7ce57c50.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-19991209-om-stod-till-r_sfs-1999-1209/?bet=1999:1209

        • Act on state support for women’s organisations sitting in the Riksdag (2010:473); 2010; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-2010473-om-statligt-sto_sfs-2010-473/

        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • The Elections Act (2005:837); 2005; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/06/44/45/722c9ee2.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Vallag-2005837_sfs-2005-837/?bet=2005:837

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        18
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        Open Question: Do the national laws regulating political finance also apply to sub-national units? If not, to what extent do sub-national units have laws regulating political finance?More about indicator

        Regulations for party support on the local level are stipulated in the Swedish local government act (1991:900).

        According to chapter 2, section 9 of the Swedish local government act (1991:900), municipalities and county councils may give financial grants and other support (party support) to the parties represented in the municipal or county council assembly. Unlike on the national level, it may even be given to parties that ceased to be represented, but only for one year after the party dropped out of the local assembly.

        Unlike on the national level, it is not the Commission on Financial Support to the Political Parties (partibidragsnämnden) that is responsible for the allocation of the funds but the municipal or local county council (Swedish local government act, 1991:900, chapter 2, section 10).

        In line with the new national law on transparency on party finances (2014:105), the local government act now also includes a transparency clause in chapter 2, section 11. It is the local equivalent to the national law and requires parties to report their income annually. The authorities may also deny public funding if a party fails to report income correctly or in a timely manner (at most six months after the accounting year).

        Most recently a political journalist reported on a problem in the existing framework. The right-wing Sweden Democrats receive party support for their representation in local and regional councils. Other political parties also represented in those councils complain about Sweden Democrats' not attending council meetings.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - It should be noted that the draft law that was sent out for public consultation covered spending by sub-national units (Article 4). In the final version, this had however been dropped and the law now only applies to central units. As a lot of party activities take place at a sub-national level, this arguably reduces transparency, especially since almost half of the public funding provided in Sweden comes from local government councils. The new provisions in the Local Government Act do not require the local government councils to publish received financial reports, in contrast to the situation at a national level. As the law has just come into force, we cannot yet say what impact the exclusive focus of the law as passed on national level will have.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please describe the applicability of national political finance regulations at the sub-national level, being sure to answer: 1) whether national laws are applicable to sub-national campaigns; 2) if not, to what extent do sub-national units have similar laws regulating political finance; and 3) whether there are any reports of problems arising from gaps in this framework.

        Sources
        • Swedish local government act (1991:900); chapter 2, sections 9-11; 1991; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/02/95/35/ca584fee.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Kommunallag-1991900_sfs-1991-900/

        • Publication by the Swedish association of local authorities and regions, 17th March 2014, 'Nya regler i kommunallagen om lokalt partistöd' [New rules in the local government act on local party support]; http://brs.skl.se/brsbibl/cirk_documents/14012.pdf

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Marijana Dragic, 3rd July 2014, ‘SD får en miljon trots tomma stolar’ [SD receives one million despite empty chairs], Dagens Nyheter; http://www.dn.se/sthlm/sd-far-en-miljon-trots-tomma-stolar/

        Reviewer's sources: "Allmänhetens insyn i partiers och valkandidaters finansiering (Public Transparency of Party and Candidate Funding)." Department of Justice, Ds 2013:31, http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/21/86/59/065771ad.pdf

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        Open Question: What are the predominant sources of funding for electoral campaigns?More about indicator

        The state is the main funder of political parties and their campaigns. In 2010, for example, 64 per cent of the parties' income came from the state (Kölln, 2014).

        Political parties finance their candidates' campaigns. Information on election specific income for personal campaigning is not available.

        Some parties are affiliated with trade unions and corporate businesses. They receive additional funding for maintaining their organisation and for funding their campaigns through these sources. The Social Democrats are openly, financially supported by the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. The Liberal Party is, via Liberal Information AB, openly a shareholder of the newspaper Nu.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - it should be noted that 2010 was an election year, in which parties generally increase their private fundraising. In addition, the reported figures does not include public funding from local government councils. Candidates sometimes do get funding from their parties for individual campaigns, but at least in the 1990s the main funding source was the candidates themselves. About individual parties, it can also be mentioned that the Centre party receives has the highest share of private funding of all parliamentary parties, as they live off the proceeds from selling a major newspaper and publication consortium in 2005.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please describe the important sources of funding for electoral campaigns, being sure to answer: 1) where does the preponderance of funding come from - public, individual, corporate, or other; 2) to what extent do individual candidates self-finance; and 3) do political parties have other methods of generating campaign funds, such as owning their own businesses or trusts.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Arne Järtelius, (no date), ‘De politiska partiernas pengar’ [The political parties’ money], Nationalencyklopedin; http://www.ne.se/rep/de-politiska-partiernas-pengar

        • website of the newspaper Nu: http://www.tidningen.nu

        • Tobias Baudin, 11th November 2013, ‘Lögner om LO:s stöd till Socialdemokraterna’ [Lies about the Swedish Trade Union Confederation’s support for the Social Democrats], Aftonbladet; http://www.aftonbladet.se/debatt/debattamnen/politik/article17817889.ab

        • Kölln, A. (2014) The Party Organisation Dataset, 1960-2010. University of Twente.

        -- Eric Sundström, Nisha besara, Håkan A Bengtsson and Sverker Lindström, 13th April 2011, ‘Vi håller en stol åt dig, Sofia Arkelsten’ [We keep a seat for you, Sofia Arkelsten], Aftonbladet; http://www.aftonbladet.se/debatt/debattamnen/politik/article12872487.ab

        "110 miljoner till Centerpartiet (100 million to the Centre Party)." Dagens Media, 2010. Available at http://www.dagensmedia.se/nyheter/print/article2449831.ece.

        Gidlund, Gillan & Möller, Tommy, ”Finansiering av personvalskampanjer i riksdagsvalet 1998 (Financing Personal Parliamentary Campaigns in 1998).” Rådet för utvärdering av 1998 års val, Premiär för personval. SOU 1999:92, page 67

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        20
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        Open Question: Have there been documented instances of violations of contribution or expenditure limits or any of the laws mentioned above (Section 2)?More about indicator

        No incidents or news stories were found that report on circumventions of the regulatory framework. Interviews confirm that there have been no documented violations. Contribution and expenditure limits do not exist.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please list and describe all documented instances of: 1) violation of contribution limits, 2) violation of expenditure limits, and 3) financial contributions that circumvent the regulatory framework. The objective of this question is to learn more about the local context, so please explain the cases in as much detail as relevant.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Magnus Hagevi, Associate Professor in political science at Linnaeus University, 13th August 2014

  • expand button!

    Reporting and Public Disclosure

    More about category
    composite
    47
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      Reporting Requirements to the Oversight Entity
      More about category
      • expand button!
        21
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, political parties and individual candidates report itemized contributions and expenditures both during and outside electoral campaign periods.More about indicator

        The 2014 Act on transparency of party finances states only stipulates that contributions must be reported annually (section 6); it does not include any provisions on expenditures.

        Contributions have to be reported for each accounting year (section 5) to the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) (section 10) according to accounting law rules as stipulated in the accounting law (section 9). The identity of the donor must be reported in case the total donated amount from the individual exceeds a threshold, currently around SEK 22,000 (USD 2960). No additional reports are mandated during election campaign periods.

        This applies to political parties and candidates that were elected into Riksdag with their personal campaign (section 4).

        According to the Local Government Law (as amended in 2013), political parties receiving public funding at a local level must submit annual financial reports to the local government council.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where political parties and individual candidates are required to report itemized contributions and expenditures to the oversight authority, both during and outside electoral campaign periods.

        A MODERATE score is earned where: 1) the requirement applies for itemized contributions, but not for itemized expenditures, or 2) it applies only during the electoral campaign but not outside it. A MODERATE score is also earned where the requirement exists, but it only applies to one actor (whether political parties and individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 4-6 and 8-10; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • Swedish local government act (1991:900); chapter 2, section 11; 1991; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/02/95/35/ca584fee.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Kommunallag-1991900_sfs-1991-900/

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        22
        Score
        NO
        In law, political parties and individual candidates are required to report their financial information on a monthly basis during the electoral campaign.More about indicator

        No such law exists.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where political parties and individual candidates must report monthly their financial information to the oversight authority during the electoral campaign.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the requirement exists on a quarterly basis. A MODERATE score is also earned where the requirement only applies to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 4-6, 9 and 10; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • The Elections Act (2005:837); 2005; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/06/44/45/722c9ee2.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Vallag-2005837_sfs-2005-837/?bet=2005:837

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        23
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, political parties and individual candidates are required to report their financial information on a quarterly basis outside of electoral campaign periods.More about indicator

        Contributions have to be reported for each accounting year (section 5) to the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) (section 10) according to accounting law rules as stipulated in the accounting law (section 9).

        This applies to political parties and candidates that were elected into Riksdag with their personal campaign (section 4).

        According to the Local Government Law (as amended in 2013), political parties receiving public funding at a local level must submit annual financial reports to the local government council.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where political parties and individual candidates must report quarterly their financial information to the oversight authority outside of electoral campaign periods.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the requirement exists on a yearly basis. A MODERATE score is also earned where the requirement only applies to one actor (whether political parties or individual candidates).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 5; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • Swedish local government act (1991:900); chapter 2, section 11; 1991; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/02/95/35/ca584fee.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Kommunallag-1991900_sfs-1991-900/

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        24
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do political parties and individual candidates report itemized financial information monthly?More about indicator

        The 2014 Act on transparency of party finances and only went into force on 1st April 2014. It remains to be seen to what extent political parties comply. The law covers political parties and candidates that successfully ran a personal campaign for their political party.

        However, before the new act was passed a joint voluntary agreement existed. Parties agreed to publish their itemised contributions from all levels of the party and from all side organisations. It would be examined by a qualified accountant and should be available to those who request it. The last agreement was signed in 2010. It was not binding and did not include any means or sanctions. It also did not state the format of the report only that it should be easy to interpret. It also covered individual candidates.

        Parties that signed the agreement in 2010 also complied on an annual basis. An inventory of the income reports from 2012/2013 shows that all parties (except for the Sweden Democrats that were also not part of the initial agreement) published their reports online; they are easily accessible and they follow all the same format by now.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - Note that the sources of income included in the voluntary disclosure reports were fairly broad (20 categories).

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) political parties and individual candidates report on their financial information monthly, and 2) the reports include both itemized contributions and itemized expenditures.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) the reports are occasionally general rather than itemized or don't contain all accounts, or 2) the reporting frequency is quarterly.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) political parties and individual candidates rarely or never file reports, 2) the reports are filed but are rarely or never itemized or refer only to either contributions or expenditures, or 3) the reporting frequency is less than quarterly.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Kölln, A. (2014) The Party Organisation Dataset, 1960-2010. University of Twente.

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        Secondary source: - Joint agreement concerning openness about the parties’ income in Sweden, 2000 (appended to Greco’s Third Evaluation Round, Evaluation Report on Sweden, Transparency of Funding, 2008) http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round3/GrecoEval3(2008)4SwedenTwo_EN.pdf

        Reviewer's sources: Christian Democratic Party report, 2013. https://www.kristdemokraterna.se/Global/Udda%20dokument/Int%C3%A4ktsanalys%202013.pdf

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        25
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent do financial reports by political parties and individual candidates include all types of contributions?More about indicator

        The 2014 Act on transparency of party finances only went into force on 1st April 2014. It remains to be seen to what extent political parties comply. The law covers political parties and candidates that successfully ran a personal campaign for their political party.

        However, before the new act was passed a joint voluntary agreement existed. Parties agreed to publish their itemised contributions from all levels of the party and from all side organisations. It would be examined by a qualified accountant and should be available to those who request it. The last agreement was signed in 2010. It was not binding and did not include any means or sanctions. It also did not state the format of the report only that it should be easy to interpret. It also covered individual candidates.

        Parties that signed the agreement in 2010 complied on an annual basis. An inventory of the income reports from 2012/2013 shows that all parties (except for the Sweden Democrats that were also not part of the initial agreement) published their reports online; they are easily accessible and they follow all the same format by now.

        Itemised contributions are listed, including also contributions from side organisations, businesses or lotteries. Donations are distinguished between private and non-private and are donors are named only if the donation exceeds SEK 22,000 (approximately USD 2,900). Addresses, however, are not provided.

        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. Note that the reporting was not completely harmonised in the voluntary agreement. In particular, the financial support to the women wings of the Liberal party and (until 2013) the Christian Democratic Party were not included in these reports (due to the organisational structures of these parties).

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) reports include an itemized list of all contributions indicating their type (in-kind, cash where allowed, etc.) and amount (estimated value for in-kind contributions), and 2) contain donors' names and addresses (or other personal identifier).

        A 50 score is earned where only one of the two conditions listed in the 100 criteria is met.

        A 0 score is earned where neither condition is met.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Kölln, A. (2014) The Party Organisation Dataset, 1960-2010. University of Twente.

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        Secondary source: - Joint agreement concerning openness about the parties’ income in Sweden, 2000 (appended to Greco’s Third Evaluation Round, Evaluation Report on Sweden, Transparency of Funding, 2008) http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round3/GrecoEval3(2008)4SwedenTwo_EN.pdf

        Reviewer's sources: Christian Democratic Party report, 2013. https://www.kristdemokraterna.se/Global/Udda%20dokument/Int%C3%A4ktsanalys%202013.pdf

        Liberal Party report, 2013. http://www.folkpartiet.se/ImageVault/Images/id24514/scope512/ImageVaultHandler.aspx

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      Availability of Electoral Campaigns' Financial Information to the Public
      More about category
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        26
        Score
        YES
        In law, financial information from political parties and individual candidates must be available to the public.More about indicator

        According to the 2014 Act on transparency of party finance, the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) makes the income reports submitted by parties and candidates publicly available on its website (section 12).

        The reports need to include the following contributions: 1) state support for parties 2) state support for party candidates and parliamentary groups 3) state support for women's organisation associated with political parties 4) membership dues 5) income from sells, lotteries, fundraisings and similar income 6) contributions from other parts of the organisation, including side organisations 7) contributions from private sources 8) contributions from businesses, organisations and other associations, including foundations and funds 9) anonymous contributions

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where in law financial information of political parties and individual candidates must be made available to the public, whether online or digitally within two days of request.

        A MODERATE score is earned where financial information must be made available to the public, but no requirement exists regarding cost, format or number of days within which it must be made available.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 12; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/
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        27
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent can citizens easily access the financial information of all political parties and individual candidates?More about indicator

        The 2014 Act on transparency of party finances and only went into force on 1st April 2014. It remains to be seen to what extent political parties comply. The law covers political parties and candidates that successfully ran a personal campaign for their political party.

        However, before the new act was passed a joint voluntary agreement existed. Parties agreed to publish their itemised contributions from all levels of the party and from all side organisations. It would be examined by a qualified accountant and should be available to those who request it. The last agreement was signed in 2010. It was not binding and did not include any means or sanctions. It also did not state the format of the report only that it should be easy to interpret. It also covered individual candidates.

        Parties that signed the agreement in 2010 also complied on an annual basis. An inventory of the income reports from 2012/2013 shows that all parties (except for the Sweden Democrats that were also not part of the initial agreement) published their reports online and in machine readable format; they are easily accessible and they all follow the same format.

        This only covers parties' income yet not their expenses. However, only income was part of the agreement. Therefore, all parties complied with the agreement (again, except for the Sweden Democrats).

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) all relevant financial information is freely available online, 2) it can be obtained digitally within two days of requesting it, and 3) it is in a machine readable format (for example in csv or xml format).

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) information is available but in some cases is incomplete or lacking detail, 2) obtaining complete information takes up to a month, or 3) it's not necessarily digital or in machine readable format.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) the information is not publicly available, or 2) obtaining it takes more than three months, or 3) the cost of obtaining it is prohibitive for the regular citizen.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Kölln, A. (2014) The Party Organisation Dataset, 1960-2010. University of Twente.

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        Secondary source: - Joint agreement concerning openness about the parties’ income in Sweden, 2000 (appended to Greco’s Third Evaluation Round, Evaluation Report on Sweden, Transparency of Funding, 2008) http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round3/GrecoEval3(2008)4SwedenTwo_EN.pdf

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        28
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent is financial information published in a standardized format?More about indicator

        The 2014 Act on transparency of party finances and only went into force on 1st April 2014. It remains to be seen to what extent political parties comply. The law covers political parties and candidates that successfully ran a personal campaign for their political party.

        However, before the new act was passed a joint voluntary agreement existed. Parties agreed to publish their itemised contributions from all levels of the party and from all side organisations. It would be examined by a qualified accountant and should be available to those who request it. The last agreement was signed in 2010. It was not binding and did not include any means or sanctions. It also did not state the format of the report only that it should be easy to interpret. It also covered individual candidates.

        Parties that signed the agreement in 2010 also complied on an annual basis. An inventory of the income reports from 2012/2013 shows that all parties (except for the Sweden Democrats that were also not part of the initial agreement) published their reports online; they are easily accessible and they follow all the same format by now. As noted, however, all parties do not participate in the agreement.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - Note that the reporting was not completely harmonised in the voluntary agreement. In particular, the financial support to the women wings of the Liberal party and (until 2013) the Christian Democratic Party were not included in these reports (due to the organisational structures of these parties).

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where financial information for all political parties and individual candidates is available to the public in a standardized format.

        A 50 score is earned where only part of the information is published in a standardized format. A 50 score is also earned where the information is standardized, but it doesn't cover all political parties and individual candidates.

        A 0 score is earned where financial information is not available in a standardized format.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Kölln, A. (2014) The Party Organisation Dataset, 1960-2010. University of Twente.

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        Secondary source: - Joint agreement concerning openness about the parties’ income in Sweden, 2000 (appended to Greco’s Third Evaluation Round, Evaluation Report on Sweden, Transparency of Funding, 2008) http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round3/GrecoEval3(2008)4SwedenTwo_EN.pdf

        Reviewer's sources: Christian Democratic Party report, 2013. https://www.kristdemokraterna.se/Global/Udda%20dokument/Int%C3%A4ktsanalys%202013.pdf

        Liberal Party report, 2013. http://www.folkpartiet.se/ImageVault/Images/id24514/scope512/ImageVaultHandler.aspx

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        29
        Score
        100
        In practice, to what extent do mainstream journalism media outlets use political finance data in their reporting?More about indicator

        Independent mainstream media outlets regularly use officially published party finance information.

        Eva Stenberg, for example, is commenting for Dagens Nyheter, Lena Hennel for Svenska Dagbladet, Magnus Wrede for Dagens Samhälle and Ardalan Samimi for Dagens Opinion.

        Ardalan Samimi’s report, for example, shows that the income of the Christian Democratic Party has only marginally decreased from 2012 to 2013 (SEK 36,192,000 compared to SEK 36,110,000). He also reports on the amount of state support, member dues and donations to the Christian Democratic party.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where at least three independent mainstream journalism media outlets have used officially published political party or individual candidate financial information as part of their reporting.

        A 50 score is earned where one independent mainstream journalism media outlet has used officially published financial information as part of its reporting.

        A 0 score is earned where no mainstream journalism media outlet has used officially published financial information as part of its reporting.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Martin Aagård, 4th July 2014, ‘Fyllefest för demokratin’ [Drinking party for democracy], Aftonbladet; http://www.aftonbladet.se/kultur/article19167940.ab

        • Ewa Stenberg, 1st July 2014, ‘Ewa Stenberg: Förslaget har en air av “Karl Bertil Jonssons julafton”’ [Ewa Stenberg: proposal has a vibe of “Karl Bertil Jonssons Christmas Eve”], Dagens Nyheter; http://www.dn.se/valet-2014/ewa-stenberg-forslaget-har-en-air-av-karl-bertil-jonssons-julafton/

        • Lena Hennel, 5th Feburary 2014, ’70 miljoner i LO-stöd till S’ [70 million in trade union support to S], Svenska Dagbladet; http://www.svd.se/nyheter/valet2014/los-nya-budskap-sverige-kan-battre_3504816.svd?sidan=1

        • Marcus Wrede, 17th April 2013, ‘Medlemmarna flyr partierna – 57 procent borta på 20 år’ [Members are leaving parties – 57 per cent left within 20 years], Dagens Samhälle; http://www.dagenssamhalle.se/nyhet/medlemmarna-flyr-partierna-br57-procent-borta-pa-20-ar-5198?page=1&quicktabs_2=0

        • Ardalan Samimi, 4th August 2014, ‘Stabil omsättning för Kristdemokraterna’ [Stable turnover for Christian Democratic Party], Dagens Opinion; http://www.dagensopinion.se/stabil-omsättning-kristdemokraterna

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        30
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent were there no news reports or other documented incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws?More about indicator

        Interviewees could not report on any incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the 2010 elections.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. Note that there was no law to violate in the 2010 elections. Even with the new law there are few provisions that can be violated.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where there were no news reports or other documented incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the most recent national election.

        A 50 score is earned where there were news reports or other documented incidents of no more than two cases of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the most recent national election.

        A 0 score is earned where there were frequent news reports or other documented incidents of violation or abuse of political finance laws during the most recent national election.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Peter Esaiasson, professor in political science at University of Gothenburg, 3rd August 2014

        Reviewer's sources: Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

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        31
        Score
        100
        In practice, to what extent were there no news reports or other documented incidents of vote-buying?More about indicator

        Interviewees could not report on any incidents of vote-buying during the 2010 election.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where there were no news reports or other documented incidents of vote-buying during the most recent national election.

        A 50 score is earned where there were news reports or other documented incidents of no more than two cases of vote-buying during the most recent national election.

        A 0 score is earned where there were frequent news reports or other documented incidents of vote-buying during the most recent national election.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Peter Esaiasson, professor in political science at University of Gothenburg, 3rd August 2014

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        32
        Score
        50
        In practice, to what extent do civil society organizations use political finance data?More about indicator

        Interviewees reported that outside of Transparency International, civil society organisations are not using officially published financial information as part of their advocacy or awareness work. Transparency International has a website (http://oppnabidrag.se/jamfor-partiernas-intakter/) on which it publishes parties' income taken from the income reports that parties voluntarily submit. The website is part of a campaign to promote the transparency of financial contributions to parties.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. I have not been able to find any evidence of other Swedish CSOs that use political finance data.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where at least three civil society organizations have used officially published political party or individual candidate financial information as part of their advocacy or awareness work.

        A 50 score is earned where one civil society organization has used officially published financial information as part of its advocacy or awareness work.

        A 0 score is earned where no civil society organization has used officially published financial information as part of its work.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Magnus Hagevi, Associate Professor in political science at Linnaeus University, 13th August 2014

        • Transparency International Sweden, a Campaign for Transparency in Party Revenues: http://oppnabidrag.se/jamfor-partiernas-intakter/

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        33
        Score
        --
        Open Question: Have there been political finance legal reforms or reform bills presented to the legislature in the last 10 years?More about indicator

        The most important reform of existing political finance rules pertains to the transparency of party finance. Several reports were issued by the Council of Europe and more specifically Greco (Groups of States against Corruption) which Sweden is a member of since 1999. The reports urged Sweden to pass bills that would make party finances transparent and publicly available. Transparency International Sweden, the major CSO involved in political finance work in Sweden, supported this as well, and was a strong proponent of the bill.

        Sweden had, however, already a joint voluntary agreement to publish party finance information that was renewed in 1980 and in 2010. Parties agreed to publish their itemised contributions from all levels of the party and from all side organisations. It would be examined by a qualified accountant and should be available to those who request it. The last agreement was signed in 2010. It was not binding and did not include any sanctions. It also did not state the format of the report only that it should be easy to interpret. It also covered individual candidates, and mandated only that parties and candidates report on contributions, not expenditures.

        Parties that signed the agreement in 2010 complied on an annual basis. An inventory of the income reports from 2012/2013 shows that all parties (except for the Sweden Democrats that were also not part of the initial agreement) published their reports online; they are easily accessible and they follow all the same format by now.

        The new act on transparency of party finance (2014:105) only went into force on 1st April and it remains to be seen to what extent political parties comply. The act is a direct consequence of Greco and TI-Sweden pushing Sweden to substitute the voluntary agreement with a transparency law.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please list and describe all documented instances of: 1) political finance reforms, including bills passed, executive orders signed, court rulings and any other legal act that had a direct effect on existent political finance regulation, and 2) all legal reform attempts presented to the legislature even if they were not approved. Please describe the political context that produced the reforms or reform attempts.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        Secondary source: - Joint agreement concerning openness about the parties’ income in Sweden, 2000 (appended to Greco’s Third Evaluation Round, Evaluation Report on Sweden, Transparency of Funding, 2008): http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round3/GrecoEval3(2008)4SwedenTwo_EN.pdf

  • expand button!

    Third Party Actors

    More about category
    composite
    0
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      Applicability of the Law to Third-Party Actors
      More about category
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        34
        Score
        NO
        In law, third-party actors (foundations, think tanks, unions, political action committees, etc.) report itemized contributions received and expenditures to an oversight authority and the information is made publicly available.More about indicator

        The 2014 act on transparency of party finances only stipulates that parties are required to publish itemised contributions from their side organisations (third-party actors) but no expenditures (section 6, paragraph 1, clause 6). This is supposed to happen once a year and applies to parties as well as candidates who successfully ran a personal campaign for their political party. However, third party actors are not required to directly report any information to an electoral authority.

        The act on foundations (1994:1220) and more generally the Annual Reports Act (1995:1554) also applies to foundations and unions as a business according to chapter 1, section 3). The Annual Reports Act regulates their reporting.

        According to the Annual Reports Act, chapter 2, sections 1 and 2, all businesses (any natural or legal person who is directly or indirectly subjected to an annual report; chapter 1, section 3, clause 1) have to submit annual reports that include a balance sheet, income statement, notes and a management report.

        Chapter 8, section 1 of the same law stipulates the business registration office as the oversight authority. According to chapter 8, section 4, annual reports of corporations, partnerships and groupings have to be made public. For foundations, the Foundations Act, chapter 9, section 1, states that respective County Administrative Boards are the responsible oversight authority. The law does not state that those reports have to be made publicly available.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) third-party actors are required to report to the oversight authority itemized contributions received and expenditures related to their support of electoral campaigns, and 2) the information must be publicly available.

        A MODERATE score is earned where third-party actors are required to report itemized contributions received and expenditures related to their support of electoral campaigns, but the information is not required to be publicly available. A MODERATE score is also earned where regulations exist, but only apply to electoral campaigns of one actor (whether political party or individual candidate).

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 6; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • Act on Foundations (1994:1220); 1994; chapter 3, section 2; chapter 9, section 1; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/19941220.htm

        • Annual Reports Act (1995:1554); 1995; chapter 1, section 3; chapter 2, section 1 and 2; chapter 8, section 1; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/19951554.htm

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        35
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent do third-party actors (foundations, think tanks, unions, political action committees, etc.) report itemized contributions received and expenditures to an oversight authority?More about indicator

        Interviewees confirm that third-party actors report itemised contributions received and expenditures to the Business Registration Authority on an annual basis. These reports are made freely available on their websites. In addition, the oversight authority to which corporations and other legal persons report, the Business Registration Authority, offers annual reports for a small fee of SEK 50 (USD 7) each. The Business Registration Authority receives all annual reports. This can be confirmed as the website offers all of them.

        The annual reports of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (affiliated with the Social Democrats) and the newspaper Nu (affiliated with the Liberal Party) are available online.

        For example, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation reports in its annual report on page 11 contributions and expenditure. Note, however, that none of these reports are directed to an electoral oversight authority.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. I have not found any reports about third parties failing to comply with formal requirements to report their income and spending. There are discussions about the interpretations of some costs incurred, especially regarding in-kind activities. A practical example of this is the long-standing argument between Liberal party MP Carl Hamilton and the Swedish Trade Union Confederation about their total spending on election campaigns.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where all third-party actors report to an oversight authority both itemized contributions received and itemized expenditures.

        A 50 score is earned where third-party actors report to an oversight authority either itemized contributions received or expenditures, but not both. A 50 score is also earned where the reports refer only to one type of third-party actor, but do not cover others.

        A 0 score is earned where third-party actors rarely or never report itemized contributions received or expenditures.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        • Website of Swedish Trade Union Association: http://www.lo.se

        • Annual report of the Swedish Trade Union Association, 2012: http://www.lo.se/home/lo/res.nsf/vRes/lo1366026597536losarsredovisning2012pdf/$File/LOsarsredovisning_2012.pdf

        • Website of newspaper Nu: http://www.tidningen.nu

        • Website of the Business Registration Authority: http://www.bolagsverket.se

        Secondary source: - Joint agreement concerning openness about the parties’ income in Sweden, 2000 (appended to Greco’s Third Evaluation Round, Evaluation Report on Sweden, Transparency of Funding, 2008) http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round3/GrecoEval3(2008)4SwedenTwo_EN.pdf

        Reviewer's sources: Sveriges Radio, "LO satsar miljoner på valkampanj (LO is investing millions in campaign)." 2013. http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=83&artikel=3919727

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        0
        In practice, to what extent can journalists and citizens easily access the financial information of third party actors, including the political spending of those actors in support of political parties and individual candidates?More about indicator

        Detailed information on contributions made to and from third-party actors as well as the expenditures of such actors, is not publicly available. This is especially true for contributions and expenditures related to electoral campaigns, such as expenditures on advertising spots or intended for campaign staff.

        For example, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation reports in its annual report, on page 11, contributions and expenditure. But the expenditures do not list contributions to the Social Democratic Party specifically. This information can only be obtained from the Social Democratic Party's income report. Lena Hennel’s report also only mentions a ‘strategic election plan’ as the source of information for the level of financial support given to the Social Democratic Party from the trade union. The report does not mention payments made for campaign staff either.


        Peer reviewer comment: Disagree. Information is often available, though not in great detail and it is not always easy to find. The case about the Swedish Trade Union Confederation shows that their support is available through the reports by the Social Democrats (until now voluntarily, from 2015 through reports submitted as a result of the new law). The Hennel report relates to an ongoing election campaign, and it cannot be expected that detailed information would be available at this time. A great example of how information is available but requires some digging relates to the spending of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise on the referendum campaign regarding introduction of the Euro in 2004. The information that they spent SEK 500 million is available in their annual report, though only in a comment on page 48.

        The Swedish Trade Union Federation (known as LO) officially stated that they spent SEK 27 million (around USD 4 million) on the 2010 election campaign (Sveriges Radio), which is more than 10% of the estimated total spending by the political parties combined for that election, and they planned to spend over 28 million (around USD 4 million) in the 2014 election campaign (SvD 2014b).”

        The source is a newspaper rather than an official report from the LO, but given the timing, their official financial reports for this period will not be out until 2015.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) all relevant financial information is freely available online or in hard copy at the cost of photocopying, 2) it can be obtained within two days of requesting it, and 3) it is in a machine readable format (for example in csv or xml format).

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) information is available but in some cases is incomplete or lacking detail, 2) obtaining complete information takes up to a month, or 3) it's not necessarily in machine readable format.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) the information is not publicly available, or 2) obtaining it takes more than three months, or 3) the cost of obtaining it is prohibitive for the regular citizen.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Lena Hennel, 5th Feburary 2014, ’70 miljoner i LO-stöd till S’ [70 million in trade union support to S], Svenska Dagbladet; http://www.svd.se/nyheter/valet2014/los-nya-budskap-sverige-kan-battre_3504816.svd?sidan=1

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        • Website of Swedish Trade Union Association: http://www.lo.se

        • Annual report of the Swedish Trade Union Association: http://www.lo.se/home/lo/res.nsf/vRes/lo1366026597536losarsredovisning2012pdf/$File/LOsarsredovisning_2012.pdf

        • Website of newspaper Nu: http://www.tidningen.nu

        Reviewer's sources: SvD. 2014b. 70 miljoner i LO-stöd till S. Available at http://www.svd.se/nyheter/valet2014/los-nya-budskap-sverige-kan-battre_3504816.svd?sidan=1. Published 5 February 2014, accessed 11 September 2014.

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        Open Question: Please describe how third party-actors (even if they are not regulated by your country's laws) obtain contributions and spend in support of political parties and/or individual candidates.More about indicator

        The most important third-party actors for the Social Democratic Party are the following workers’ organisations, as can be read from the party's income report: Fastighetsanställdas Förbund; GS – Facket för Skogs-, Trä- och Grafisk bransch; Handelsanställdas Förbund; Hotell och Restaurang Facket; Industrifacket Metall; Seko -Facket för Service o Kommunikation; Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet; Svenska Elektrikerförbundet; Svenska Kommunalarbetareförbundet; Svenska Livsmedelarbetareförbundet; Svenska Målareförbundet; Svenska Pappersindustriarbetareförbundet; LO

        Together, they contributed in 2013 a total of SEK 15,303,000 (2,220,506 USD); the LO’s (Swedish Trade Union Confederation) share alone was SEK 7,700,000 (1,117,290 USD).

        The Green Party is the only other party that received money from local party organisations or third-party actors (SEK 12,000 [1,741 USD]), probably from the student association Gröna Studenter.

        Next to these, Olof Petersson also mentioned the relevance of other party’s youth organisations. They are also subsidised by the state but follow a different formula for distributing contributions. Here, state support is granted per member. This has led to scandals in the past when youth organisations overstated their membership size, as happened in the Social Democratic Party’s and Left Party’s youth association.

        The last incident of economic fraud was reported in July 2012. A branch of the youth organisation to the Social Democratic Party (SSU) was accused of having claimed state contributions from the county authority for more than 40 courses even though only 10-14 courses were really held. This may have amounted to SEK 200,000 (29,020 USD) worth of economic fraud.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - The original comment gives good information about donations from various organisations to political parties. However, it does not take into account the independent fund-raising and spending on electoral campaigns that benefit certain parties. In general, there are no restrictions on how third party actors can raise or spend money in relation to election campaigns. Regarding the labour movement, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) spent around SEK 27 million(USD 3,633,403) in the 2010 elections and around 28 million (USD 3,767,973) in the 2014 elections during the election campaign. This is mainly funded by from the LO's constituent trade unions, which largely funded by membership fees/contributions. Many other organisations are active in election campaigns; they may not formally support a political party.

        Scoring Criteria

        To answer this question please: 1) list the types of third-party actors that exist in your country and describe how they work to influence campaigns, 2) explain how important such actors are or not in the context of campaigns, including whether their expenditures are substantial in relation to that of political parties and individual candidates, and 3) if documented evidence indicates they circumvent laws intended to regulate political finance, please explain how and include references to the evidence.

        Sources
        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July and 8th August 2014

        • Interview with Magnus Hagevi, Associate Professor in political science at Linnaeus University, 13th August 2014

        • Website of Swedish Trade Union Association: http://www.lo.se

        • website Social Democratic Party: http://www.socialdemokraterna.se

        • website Moderate Party: http://www.moderat.se/kampanj
        • website Green Party: http://www.mp.se
        • website Liberal Party: http://www.folkpartiet.se
        • website Centre Party: http://www.centerpartiet.se
        • website Christian Democratic Party: https://www.kristdemokraterna.se
        • website Sweden Democrats: http://sverigedemokraterna.se

        Secondary source: - Teresa Skeppholm, 20th April 2005, ‘Fifflet med ungdomsförbundens medlemstal’ [Fiddling with youth organisations’ membership size], SVT; http://www.svt.se/nyheter/fifflet-med-ungdomsforbundens-medlemsantal

        Reviewer's sources: Sveriges Radio, "LO satsar miljoner på valkampanj (LO is investing millions in campaign)." 2013. http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=83&artikel=3919727

  • expand button!

    Monitoring and Enforcement

    More about category
    composite
    61
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      Monitoring Capabilities
      More about category
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        38
        Score
        MODERATE
        In law, political finance information is monitored by an independent oversight authority.More about indicator

        According to the 2014 act on transparency of party finances, the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) is the oversight authority responsible for monitoring party finances (section 4). Parties and candidates must submit audited reports to the authority on an annual basis. However, The law does not give explicit rights to Kammarkollegiet to audit reports or to investigate cases.

        The agency can impose sanctions (for example section 17) for late or missing submissions, or for discrepanices flagged in the initial submitted audits, but it does not have investigative powers. The act states that the parties are responsible for hiring an accountant, in line with accounting law, that evaluates their books (section 9).

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) an independent oversight authority is mandated to monitor political finance information, and 2) the authority has investigation and audit powers.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the independent oversight authority is mandated to monitor political finance information, but doesn't have investigation or audit powers.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 4, 9, 13, 14 and 17; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); sections 2-3; 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

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        MODERATE
        In law, high-level appointments to the oversight authority are based on merit.More about indicator

        The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet) is a public authority. As such, appointments made to it are subject to constitutional provisions for public authorities. The government, led by the prime minister, makes appointments to the authority. Calls for applications must, by law, be made public, but not the process leading up to the appointment.

        Chapter 12, section 5 of the Constitution states that appointments to posts at administrative authorities can only be based on objective factors, such as merit and competence. That said, according to the law, appointees do not need to have any defined or special qualifications.

        In addition, the Administration Procedure Act (1986) describes circumstances in which an administrator may be disqualified in handling individual matters (section 11). These concern matters in which family members or anyone else closely related that can expect an extraordinary advantage from the outcome of the matter. Other situations in which a person is deemed disqualified involve those whenever the administrator is a paid representative of someone or, more generally, whenever the impartiality of the administrator is at danger (section 11, paragraph 1, clause 5).

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) high-level appointments must be based on merit in a public appointment process; and 2) appointees must be free of conflicts of interest due to personal loyalties, family connections, political party affiliations, business partners or other biases.

        A MODERATE score is earned where high-level appointments must be based on merit in a public appointment process, but the regulations don't forbid appointments involving conflicts of interest or other biases.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; chapter 2, section 5; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Administrative Procedure Act (1986:223); 1986; section 11; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/06/48/92/a02dc523.pdf; Swedish: http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/19860223.HTM

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/om-kammarkollegiet

        • Public announcement to appoint the General Director by the Swedish Riksdag, 22th May 2006: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Fragor-och-anmalningar/KU-anmalningar/Regeringens-utovande-av-utnamn_GTA1865/

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        75
        In practice, to what extent are high-level appointments to the oversight authority based on merit?More about indicator

        There is an advertised competition for appointments to the oversight authority. For example, in June 2014 the website published a call for applications for the legal department. The call includes specific requirements as to the law degree and professional experience the successful candidate should hold.

        Candidates are appointed based on merit. For example, before the appointment of the General Director, Claes Ljungh, in 2006, he was twice Secretary of State in the Department of Finance (1997-1998 and 1999-2004). Before that he was in the county’s taxation officer in Uppsala.

        However, it should be mentioned that the appointment of Claes Ljungh met some criticism. Despite his professional qualifications, it became known to the public that he was a close friend to the then Prime Minister, Göran Persson, who also appointed him. This means there is a possibility that the position was not filled purely based on merit. On the other hand, the current government, led by Fredrik Reinfeldt, decided to prolong Ljungh’s office term, which normally only lasts six years. This is a sign that the government does not consider the appointment of Claes Ljungh as a danger to Kammarkollegiet’s independence. Further, according to interviewees, Ljungh's qualifications in conjunction with his extended office term are indications that Ljungh was appointed based on merit. Still, the "affair" around the General Director can be taken to indicate that non-merit based appointments are not impossible.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) there is an advertised competition and public vetting process, 2) candidates with the most merit and without conflicts of interest or other biases are appointed.

        A 50 score is earned where the public competition is usually advertised and the vetting process public, but exceptions exist. A 50 score is also earned where candidates with the most merit and without conflicts of interest or other biases are appointed but exceptions exist.

        A 0 score is earned where there's rarely or never a public competition, or appointees are rarely selected on merit or without conflicts of interest or other biases.

        Sources
        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/jobb

        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014 and 13th August 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        Secondary source: - Tove Nandorf, 19th May 2006, ‘Staatsministerns bästa vän får nytt toppjobb’ [Prime Minister’s best friend gets new top job], Dagens Nyheter; http://www.dn.se/nyheter/politik/statsministerns-basta-van-far-nytt-toppjobb/

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        YES
        In law, the independence of high-level appointees is guaranteed.More about indicator

        The independence of high-level appointees is guaranteed in law.

        Chapter 12, section 2 of the Constitution secures the independence of public authorities such as the Kammarkollegiet. It states that no public authority, including the Riksdag, may determine how an administrative body shall decide in a particular case.

        According to the instructions for the Kammarkollegiet (2007:284, section 9, 10, 16 and 17), it is led by the general director. Other members of the Kammarkollegiet’s fonddelegation (capital administration unit) are appointed by the government for a limited amount of time, according to section 17. The authority also has an advisory board that consists of maximally eight people (section 10).

        The agency has can impose sanctions (for example section 17) but does not have auditing powers. The act states that the parties are responsible for hiring an accountant, in line with accounting law, that evaluates their books (section 9).

        Elected Parliamentary Ombudsmen supervise the application of laws and other regulations in the public service, as stipulated in the Constitution (chapter 13, section 6). They can also recommend imposing sanctions to the National Disciplinary Offences Board that decides on matters concerning disciplinary liability, report for prosecution and dismissals (Public Employment Act, 1994:260, section 34). An Ombudsman has a right of access to courts and administrative authorities, protocols and actions. An attorney general can upon request assist the ombudsman. Re: appointees to the Kammarkollegiet, no removal or disciplinary action can be imposed without this due process.

        The limited term of office and the powers granted to the Parliamentary Ombudsmen and the National Disciplinary Offices Board secure the security of tenure and due process in removal/disciplinary actions.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) appointees have the authority or mandate to review cases and issue decisions, 2) the law establishes security of tenure, and 3) removal or disciplinary actions are based on due process conducted by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        A MODERATE score is earned where appointees have the authority or mandate to review cases and issue decisions, BUT one of the second two conditions mentioned in the YES criteria is not met.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • The Constitution of Sweden; 2012; chapter 12, section 2 and chapter 13, section 6; English: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Start/Bestall/Sprakversioner/English---engelska1/Sveriges-grundlagar-och-riksdagsordningen1/; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Sa-funkar-riksdagen/Demokrati/Grundlagarna/

        • Delegated Legislation with instructions on the Legal, Financial and Adminstrative Service Agency (2007: 824); section 9, 10, 16 and 17; English: not available; Swedish: https://lagen.nu/2007:824

        • The Public Employment Act (1994:260); 1994; section 34; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/07/20/01/09822018.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1994260-om-offentlig-an_sfs-1994-260/

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        Score
        100
        In practice, to what extent is the independence of high-level appointees guaranteed?More about indicator

        The interviewees confirmed that appointees to the Kammarkollegiet reviewed cases without with fear or favour from other branches of government, enjoyed security of tenure or were not removed, disciplined or transferred without due process by a peer panel. Indeed, there are no cases from within the period of study that document the removal of appointees.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where all of the following conditions are met: 1) appointees review cases and issue decisions without fear or favor from other branches of government, and 2) appointees are granted security of tenure and 3) no appointees are removed, disciplined or transferred without due process by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        A 50 score is earned where any of the following conditions apply: 1) appointees generally operate without fear or favor from other branches of government but exceptions exist, or 2) some but not all appointees are granted security of tenure, or 3) appointees are occasionally removed, disciplined or transferred without due process by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        A 0 score is earned where at least one of the following conditions apply: 1) appointees operate with fear or favor from other branches of government, or 2) are not granted security of tenure, or 3) are usually removed, disciplined or transferred without observing due process by a peer panel or independent oversight body.

        Sources
        • Interview with Jan Turvall, senior lecturer in public administration at the University of Gothenburg, 3rd August 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Märeta Gröndal, head of administration at the Legal, Financial and Administrative Service Agency, 18th August 2014

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        Open Question: How does decision-making work in the oversight authority?More about indicator

        Kammarkollegiet is led by the general director. It fulfils several service tasks in the public area related to the economy, legal matters, and capital and risk administration (2008:824, section 1).

        It is composed of six units: capital administration, insurance unit, legal unit, state’s purchasing central, procurement support, and inheritance funds delegation unit.

        With the new act on transparency of party finances kammarkollegiet has the additional task of oversight for party finances. It is responsible for monitoring the submission of detailed reports on the contributions received by political parties, and for imposing sanctions on delinquent parties.

        The law and the interviewee do not mention specific cases in which a majority decision is required.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - It is difficult to give an overall description of the Kammarkollegiet decision making process since it works with so many different issues. It deals with issues from interpreters and travel guarantees to debt collection and inheretence issues. The Kammarkollegiet does not have a board, so the issue of a majority does not arise - there is no group of people to form a majority or not. There is a "management team", meeting once a month, but they control the entity itself. There is also an "insynsråd"; but they do not take any formal decisions. The new law does not include any specific information about decision making within Kammarkollegiet, nor has Kammarkollegiet published any information about which unit will deal with specific issues or how decision making will be made.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please describe: 1) the composition of the decision-making body within the oversight authority, 2) the type of decisions it's allowed to make and makes in practice, and 3) in which cases majority is required. If there have been well substantiated complaints about the decision-making process being ineffective or politicized please explain.

        Sources
        • Delegated Legislation with instructions on the Legal, Financial and Adminstrative Service Agency (2007: 824); section 9, 10, 16 and 17; English: not available; Swedish: https://lagen.nu/2007:824

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/organisation

        • Interview with Märeta Gröndal, head of administration at the Legal, Financial and Administrative Service Agency, 26th August 2014

        Reviewer's sources: Kammarkollegiet website, pages "Ledningsgrupp" http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/ledningsgrupp, "Insynsrådet" http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/insynsradet, "partifinansiering", http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/partifinansiering, all accessed in September, 2014.

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        75
        In practice, to what extent does the authority have sufficient capacity to monitor political finance regulations?More about indicator

        The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency only started its work as the oversight authority for party finance in April 2014. It remains to be seen whether or not it has sufficient capacity in terms of budget and staff to fulfil its function.

        It has currently about 250 employees. Staff dealing with the oversight of party finances are collaborating from different departments (communications, IT, registration and legal matters). It is unclear at this point how much staff will be handling the new task in total. The head of administration at the Kammerkollegiet is, however, concerned that it will not be sufficient to handle the new workload. Extra financial resources were not allocated either.

        The other interviewees, however, were confident that the agency would accomplish its goal, and that the resources allocated to it are sufficient.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. It is worth noting that during the consultation process regarding the draft law, Kammarkolleget stated that it did not see itself as a suitable entity to carry out the oversight of political party finance.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) the authority has sufficient budget to monitor all incoming reports, and 2) it has sufficient staff to review all incoming reports.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) the authority has insufficient budget to monitor all incoming reports, or 2) its staff can only review half of all incoming reports.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) the authority can't fulfill most of its essential functions due to budget constraints, or 2) its staff only has the capacity to review 25% or less of all incoming reports.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Interview with Märeta Gröndal, head of administration at the Legal, Financial and Administrative Service Agency, 26th August 2014

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se

        Reviewer's sources: Kammarkollegiet, "Consultation Response." 2013. http://www.kammarkollegiet.se/sites/default/files/remissvards2013-31allmanhetenkk_2013-08-30.pdf

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        0
        In practice, to what extent does the authority conduct investigations or audits when necessary?More about indicator

        Not applicable. The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency only started its work as the oversight authority for party finance in April 2014. There has not yet been an election in which any authority could have fulfilled its function. No investigations were carried out in the last election for this reason.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where the authority conducted at least three investigations or audits during the most recent electoral campaign.

        A 50 score is earned where the authority conducted at least one investigation or audit during the most recent electoral campaign.

        A 0 score is earned where the authority didn't conduct any investigation or audit during the most recent electoral campaign.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se

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        46
        Score
        0
        In practice, to what extent does the authority publish the results of investigations or audits?More about indicator

        Not applicable. The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency only started its work as the oversight authority for party finance in April 2014. There has not yet been an election in which the authority could have fulfilled its function. No investigations were carried out in the last election for this reason. There were no reports to publish as a result.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where the authority publishes reports of all its investigations or audits a month or less after their conclusion.

        A 50 score is earned where reports are available to the public more than a month after the conclusion of the investigation or audit.

        A 0 score is earned where reports are not available to the public or they become available after six months or more after conclusion of the investigation or audit. A 0 score is also earned where only summaries of the reports are publicly available.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se

    • expand button!
      Enforcement Capabilities
      More about category
      • expand button!
        47
        Score
        YES
        In law, there are sanctions in response to political finance violations.More about indicator

        According to the 2014 act on transparency of party finances, the oversight authority can impose sanctions on delayed submission (section 15 and 17). The fee amounts to a total of SEK 10,000 (1,451 USD). The law does not specify a fine per day of delayed submission. If a party misreports income the authority may decide for a charge according to section 19 and 21 of the act. If a party did not report income, the charge is at most SEK 100,000 (14,510 USD). If a party reported false information, the charge amounts to SEK 20,000 (2,900 USD).

        According to the law, candidates who succesfully ran a personal campaign for their party are also subject to these sanctions.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree. Note that there are few restrictions in the legislation (no donation or spending limits, no limits on eligible donors other than foreign powers etc), and so few possible violations.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) the law clearly defines violations of political finance laws, and 2) there are clearly defined sanctions for specific violations.

        A MODERATE score is earned where violations are clearly defined but sanctions for specific violations are not.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 15,17, 19 and 21; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        Reviewer's sources: Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); sections 2-3; 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

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        YES
        In law, the oversight authority has the power to impose sanctions.More about indicator

        According to the 2014 act on transparency of party finances, the oversight authority can impose sanctions on delayed submission (section 15 and 17). The fee amounts to SEK 10,000 (USD 1,451). If a party misreports income the authority may decide for a charge according to section 19 and 21 of the act. If a party did not report income, the charge is at most SEK 100,000 (USD 14,510). If a party reported false information, the charge amounts to SEK 20,000 (USD 2,900).

        In case a party or candidate fails to pay the stated fines for non-compliance, Kammmarkollegiet may take the case to Kronofogdemyndingheten (the Enforcement Authority) (Section 11 of the law on the regulation of state assets). Indeed, the law on the regulation of state assets grants all public authorities (which includes the Kammarkollegiet) in Sweden the power to refer cases to prosecution.

        Scoring Criteria

        A YES score is earned where: 1) the oversight authority has the power to impose sanctions, and 2) it can directly prosecute violators before the courts or is independent to send cases to public prosecution.

        A MODERATE score is earned where the oversight authority has the power to impose sanctions, but it can't directly prosecute violators before the courts or is not independent to send cases to public prosecution.

        A NO score is earned where no such law exists.

        Sources
        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 15,17, 19 and; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        • Regulation on the management of state assets (1993:1138); section 11; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.esv.se/Verktyg--stod/EA-boken/?page=eabokch3secHantering%2520av%2520statliga%2520fordringar#not_marker1

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        In practice, to what extent do offenders comply with sanctions imposed?More about indicator

        Not applicable. The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency only started its work as the oversight authority for party finance in April 2014. There has not yet been an election in which the authority could have fulfilled its function. No sanctions have been imposed for this reason.

        Scoring Criteria

        A 100 score is earned where: 1) offenders comply with the sanctions imposed without exception, and 2) they are not repeat offenders.

        A 50 score is earned where: 1) offenders usually comply with the sanctions imposed but exceptions exist, or 2) most are not repeat offenders but some exceptions exist.

        A 0 score is earned where: 1) offenders rarely comply with the sanctions imposed, or 2) most are repeat offenders.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se

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        --
        Open Question: How strong is enforcement, and what impedes more effective enforcement?More about indicator

        The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency only started its work as the oversight authority for party finance in April 2014 when the act on transparency of party finance was introduced. It remains to be seen to what extent enforcement is effective.

        The most urgent political finance reform was indeed the one just introduced in April 2014 on the transparency of party finance. It is important to see first how the law is applied in practice before calls for further reform are justified.

        However, Birgitta Nygren from Transparency International Sweden is concerned that possible sanctions might too low and too lenient. In comparison, Olof Petersson proposal is to not have any sanctions at all and that a strategy of 'naming and shaming' would be more effective.


        Peer reviewer comment: Agree - The main restriction regarding transparency in political finance in Sweden is due to gaps in the legislation, in particular the absence of expenditure reporting, direct (centralised) access to party reports at a sub-national level and reporting from third parties. The new law is likely to have only a limited impact since it does not change the disclosure situation in the voluntary agreement significantly. The oversight from Kammarkollegiet and in particular at a local level is likely to be fairly formal in nature. Regarding sanctions, strict formal sanctions would be unlikely to have a significant impact - the political consequences of a party being caught having violated the law would be significantly more important.

        Scoring Criteria

        Please provide a general explanation of the effectiveness of enforcement, describing: 1) any conditions that may prevent effective enforcement, and 2) explain what are the most urgent areas of reform in the country's political finance system.

        Sources
        • Interview with Birgitta Nygren, Board Member, Transparency International Sweden, 23rd July 2014

        • Interview with Olof Petersson, emeritus professor in political science at Uppsala University and former lead researcher at the Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS), 24th July 2014

        • Website of the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency (Kammarkollegiet): http://www.kammarkollegiet.se

        • Act on transparency of party finances (2014:105); 2014; section 15,17, 19 and; English: not available; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Svensk-forfattningssamling-201_sfs-2014-105/

        Reviewer's sources: Act on state financial support to political parties (1972:625); sections 2-3; 1972; English: http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/10/78/60/b7508720.pdf; Swedish: http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Lag-1972625-om-statligt-sto_sfs-1972-625/?bet=1972:625

Sweden has a unicameral legislature. Elections to the Riksdag are held every four years, and seats are allocated on the basis of proportional representation. To enter parliament, a party must obtain at least 4% of the national vote, or 12% of the vote in a single constituency. Seats in the Riksdag are divided into permanent and non-permanent seats due to the proportional representation rule. The adjusted odd number method is used to allocate a total of 310 permanent seats. In the current electoral cycle, an additional 39 non-permanent seats were allocated to parties.

Voting usually occurs on a party list basis, but preference voting for a specific candidate instead of a party is permitted.

The prime minister is the head of government, and is appointed by members of the Riksdag. The Swedish monarch is the head of state.

Campaigns are paid for by parties (parties are publicly funded), and largely managed at the party level.

The most recent elections occurred in September 2010, though new elections will be held in September of 2014. In the 2010 elections, eight parties won seats in parliament, in descending order by number of seats the Social Democrats, the Moderate party, the Green party, the Liberal party, the Centre party, the Sweden Democrats and (same number of seats) the Left party and the Christian Democrats. The government was formed by the Moderate party, the Liberal party, the Centre party and the Christian democrats.